The need for reconfigurable manufacturing systems has long been recognized as a key factor to gain the necessary flexibility for economical production of small batch sizes. Automation of the reconfiguration processes is a challenge both on the hardware and the software level. Addressing this issue in the field of fixture design, a new reconfigurable fixture device for a CNC milling machine has been developed. The developed vise contains interchangeable and customizable jaws enabling the secure fixture of a variety of workpiece geometries. To enable automated reconfiguration, a reasoning system is needed that can determine feasible fixture configurations based on the given workpiece and part as well as the available fixture components. In this paper, an ontology for representing fixture design and reconfiguration knowledge for vise-type flexible fixtures is presented. The ontology builds on and extends an existing ontology for modular fixture design. The creation of the ontology is based on a systematic building methodology, going from informal to formal concept definitions in a middle-out approach. The core concepts and relations of the ontology are presented and the ontology is validated both on the informal and on the formal level by its ability to find feasible fixture configurations, i.e., appropriate vise jaw pairs to fix example workpieces. The ontology can represent type-specific fixture designs in an unambiguous way and can hence serve as a basis for the development of applications needed to create an autonomous fixture design system.

References

References
1.
Bi
,
Z.
, and
Zhang
,
W.
,
2001
, “
Flexible Fixture Design and Automation: Review, Issues and Future Directions
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
39
(
13
), pp.
2867
2894
.10.1080/00207540110054579
2.
Bannat
,
A.
,
Bautze
,
T.
,
Beetz
,
M.
,
Blume
,
J.
,
Diepold
,
K.
,
Ertelt
,
C.
,
Geiger
,
F.
,
Gmeiner
,
T.
,
Gyger
,
T.
,
Knoll
,
A.
,
Lau
,
C.
,
Lenz
,
C.
,
Ostgathe
,
M.
,
Reinhart
,
G.
,
Roesel
,
W.
,
Ruehr
,
T.
,
Schuboe
,
A.
,
Shea
,
K.
,
Stork genannt Wersborg
,
I.
,
Stork
,
S.
,
Tekouo
,
W.
,
Wallhoff
,
F.
,
Wiesbeck
,
M.
, and
Zaeh
,
M. F.
,
2011
, “
Artificial Cognition in Production Systems
,”
IEEE Trans. Automation Sci. Eng.
,
8
(
1
), pp.
148
174
.10.1109/TASE.2010.2053534
3.
Ertelt
,
C.
,
Gmeiner
,
T.
, and
Shea
,
K.
,
2009
, “
A Flexible Fixture and Reconfiguration Process for the Cognitive Machine Shop
,”
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production (CARV 2009)
, pp.
112
120
.
4.
Shea
,
K.
,
Ertelt
,
C.
,
Gmeiner
,
T.
, and
Ameri
,
F.
,
2010
, “
Design-to-Fabrication Automation for the Cognitive Machine Shop
,”
Adv. Eng. Informatics
,
24
(
3
), pp.
251
268
.10.1016/j.aei.2010.05.017
5.
Pehlivan
,
S.
, and
Summers
,
J.
,
2008
, “
A Review of Computer-Aided Fixture Design With Respect to Information Support Requirements
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
46
(
4
), pp.
929
947
.10.1080/00207540600865386
6.
Ameri
,
F.
, and
Summers
,
J. D.
,
2008
, “
An Ontology for Representation of Fixture Design Knowledge
,”
Computer Aided Design and Applications
,
5
(
5
), pp.
601
611
.
7.
Krishnakumar
,
K.
, and
Melkote
,
S. N.
,
2000
, “
Machining Fixture Layout Optimization Using the Genetic Algorithm
,”
Int. J. Machine Tools and Manufacture
,
40
(
4
), pp.
579
598
.10.1016/S0890-6955(99)00072-3
8.
Boyle
,
I.
,
Rong
,
K.
, and
Brown
,
D.
,
2006
, “
CAFixD: A Case-Based Reasoning Fixture Design Method. Framework and Indexing Mechanisms
,”
J. Comput. Information Sci. Eng.
,
6
(
1
), p.
40
.10.1115/1.2161229
9.
Brost
,
R.
, and
Goldberg
,
K.
,
1994
, “
A Complete Algorithm For Synthesizing Modular Fixtures For Polygonal Parts
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, pp.
535
542
.
10.
Kang
,
Y.
,
Rong
,
Y.
, and
Yang
,
J. A.
,
2003
, “
Geometric and Kinetic Model Based Computer-Aided Fixture Design Verification
,”
J. Comput. Information Sci. Eng.
,
3
(
3
), pp.
187
199
.10.1115/1.1607352
11.
Amaral
,
N.
,
Rencis
,
J. J.
, and
Rong
,
Y.
,
2005
, “
Development of a Finite Element Analysis Tool for Fixture Design Integrity Verification and Optimisation
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
25
(
5
), pp.
409
419
.10.1007/s00170-003-1796-6
12.
Chou
,
Y. C.
, and
Barash
,
M. M.
,
1986
, “
Computerized Fixture Design From Solid Models of Workpieces
,”
Proceedings of the Symposium on Integrated and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems
, pp.
133
141
.
13.
Dong
,
X.
,
DeVries
,
W.
, and
Wozny
,
M.
,
1991
, “
Feature-Based Reasoning In Fixture Design
,”
CIRP Ann. Manufacturing Technol.
,
40
(
1
), pp.
111
114
.10.1016/S0007-8506(07)61946-5
14.
Subrahmanyam
,
S.
,
2002
, “
A Method for Generation of Machining and Fixturing Features From Design Features
,”
Computers in Industry
,
47
(
3
), pp.
269
287
.10.1016/S0166-3615(01)00154-3
15.
Cecil
,
J.
,
2001
, “
Computer-Aided Fixture Design—A Review and Future Trends
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
18
(
11
), pp.
790
793
.10.1007/s001700170004
16.
Rong
,
Y.
,
Huang
,
S.
, and
Hou
,
Z.
,
2005
,
Advanced Computer-Aided Fixture Design
,
Academic Press
,
San Diego, CA
.
17.
Etscheidt
,
K.
,
1997
,
Automatisierte Montage Modularer Spannvorrichtungen mit Industrierobotern
,
Shaker Aachen
.
18.
Asada
,
H.
,
1985
, “
Kinematic Analysis of Workpart Fixturing for Flexible Assembly With Automatically Reconfigurable Fixtures
,”
IEEE J. Robotics and Automation
,
1
(
2
), pp.
86
94
.
19.
Gaag
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Entwicklung einer Ontologie zur funktionsorientierten Lösungssuche in der Produktentwicklung
,”
Ph.D. dissertation
,
Technische Universität München
,
München
.
20.
Uschold
,
M.
, and
Gruninger
,
M.
,
1996
, “
Ontologies: Principles, Methods and Applications
,”
Knowledge Eng. Rev.
,
11
(
02
), pp.
93
136
.10.1017/S0269888900007797
21.
Borst
,
W. N.
,
1997
, “
Construction of Engineering Ontologies for Knowledge Sharing and Reuse
,”
Ph.D. dissertation
,
Universiteit Twente, Enschede
,
The Netherlands
.
22.
Lemaignan
,
S.
,
Siadat
,
A.
,
Dantan
,
J. Y.
, and
Semenenko
,
A.
,
2006
, “
MASON: A Proposal for An Ontology of Manufacturing Domain
,”
Proceedings of the Distributed Intelligent Systems: Collective Intelligence and Its Applications, IEEE Workshop on (DIS 2006)
, pp.
195
200
.
23.
Schlenoff
,
C.
,
Ivester
,
R.
, and
Knutilla
,
A.
,
1998
, “
A Robust Process Ontology for Manufacturing Systems Integration
,”
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Engineering Design and Automation
, pp.
7
14
.
24.
Lopez
,
O.
, and
Lastra
,
M.
,
2006
, “
JL: Using Semantic Web Technologies to Describe Automation Objects
,”
Int. J. Manufacturing Res.
,
1
(
4
), pp.
482
503
.10.1504/IJMR.2006.012257
25.
Vrba
,
P.
,
Radakovič
,
M.
,
Obitko
,
M.
, and
Maøík
,
V.
,
2009
, “
Semantic Extension of Agent-Based Control: The Packing Cell Case Study
,”
Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems for Manufacturing
,
V.
Marík
,
T.
Strasser
, and
A.
Zoitl
, eds.,
Springer
Berlin/Heidelberg
, pp.
47
60
.
26.
Al-Safi
,
Y.
, and
Vyatkin
,
V.
,
2007
, “
An Ontology-Based Reconfiguration Agent for Intelligent Mechatronic Systems
,”
Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems for Manufacturing
,
V.
Marík
,
T.
Strasser
, and
A.
Zoitl
, eds.,
Springer
Berlin/Heidelberg
, pp.
114
126
.
27.
Barata
,
J.
,
Camarinha-Matos
,
L.
, and
Cândido
,
G.
,
2008
, “
A Multiagent-Based Control System Applied to An Educational Shop Floor
,”
Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
,
24
(
5
), pp.
597
605
.10.1016/j.rcim.2007.09.008
28.
Uschold
,
M.
, and
Jasper
,
R.
,
1999
, “
A Framework for Understanding And Classifying Ontology Applications
,”
Proceedings of the 12th Workshop for Knowledge Acquisition, Modeling and Management (KAW’99).
29.
Hunter
,
R.
,
Rios
,
J.
,
Perez
,
J.
, and
Vizan
,
A.
,
2006
, “
A Functional Approach for the Formalization of the Fixture Design Process
,”
Int. J. Machine Tools and Manufacture
,
46
(
6
), pp.
683
697
.10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.04.018
30.
Gruber
,
T. R.
,
1995
, “
Toward Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge Sharing
,”
Int. J. Human Comput. Studies
,
43
(
5
), pp.
907
928
.10.1006/ijhc.1995.1081
31.
Sure
,
Y.
, and
Studer
,
R.
,
2002
, “
On-to-Knowledge Methodology—Final Version
,”
Institute AIFB, University of Karlsruhe
,
Karlsruhe
.
32.
Stuckenschmidt
,
H.
,
2009
,
Ontologien: Konzepte, Technologien und Anwendungen
,
Springer
,
Berlin
.
33.
Hoffman
,
E. G.
,
2004
,
Jig and Fixture Design
,
Thomson
,
Clifton Park
.
34.
Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research
,
2011
, “
protégé
,” http://protege.stanford.edu/
35.
Horridge
,
M.
,
Drummond
,
N.
,
Goodwin
,
J.
,
Rector
,
A.
,
Stevens
,
R.
, and
Wang
,
H. H.
,
2006
, “
The Manchester Owl Syntax
,”
OWL: Experiences and Directions
, pp.
10
11
.
36.
Sirin
,
E.
,
Parsia
,
B.
,
Grau
,
B. C.
,
Kalyanpur
,
A.
, and
Katz
,
Y.
,
2007
, “
Pellet: A Practical OWL-DL Reasoner
,”
Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web
,
5
(
2
), pp.
51
53
.10.1016/j.websem.2007.03.004
You do not currently have access to this content.