Competitive usability studies are employed providing empirical results in a design evaluation and review context. Populations of novice and experienced users are tested against benchmarks. Benchmark 1 is used to evaluate error identification and correction. Benchmark 2 is employed to evaluate the user’s ability to understand spatial relationships. Both benchmarks 1 and 2 compare individual performance with performance of teams. Benchmarks 3 measures quantity of errors found in a 4 min time frame. For benchmark 1, there is a statistically significant difference, but for benchmark 2, there is no statistical difference. For benchmark 3, there is a statistically significant increase in errors found. This increase is evaluated for impact as cost avoidance. It is concluded that cost avoidance by using a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) immersive virtual environment easily justifies the CAVE system.

References

References
1.
Bochenek
,
G.
,
Ragusa
,
J.
, and
Malone
,
L.
, 2001, “
Integrating Virtual 3D Display Systems Into Product Design Reviews
,”
Int. J. Technol Manage.
,
21
, pp.
340
352
.
2.
Banerjee
,
P.
, and
Basu-Mallick
,
D.
, 2003, “
Measuring the Effectiveness of Presence and Immersive Tendencies on the Conceptual Design Review Process
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
,
3
(
2
), pp.
166
179
.
3.
Johansson
,
P.
, and
Yennerman
,
A.
, 2004, “
Immersive Visual Interfaces-Assessing Usability by the Effects of Learning/Results from an Empirical Study
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
,
4
(
2
) pp.
124
131
.
4.
Gould
,
J.
, and
Lewis
,
C.
, 1985, “
Designing for Usability: Key Principles and What Designers Think
,”
Commun. ACM
,
28
(
3
), pp.
300
311
.
5.
ISO Standard 9241-11, Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Virtual Display Terminals (VDT’s), Part 11- “Guidance on Usability” International Standards Organization, 2003.
6.
Hix
,
D.
,
Swan
,
E.
,
Gabbard
,
J.
,
McGee
,
M.
,
Durban
,
J.
, and
King
,
T.
, 1999, “
User-Centered Design and Evaluation of Real-Time Battlefield Visualization Virtual Environment
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality
, pp.
96
103
.
7.
Gabbard
,
J.
,
Hix
,
D.
, and
Swan
,
E.
, 1999, “
User Centered Design and Evaluation of Virtual Environments
,”
IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl.
,
19
(
6
), pp.
2
10
.
8.
Gabbard
,
J.
, and
Swan
,
E.
, 2008, “
Usability Engineering for Augmented Reality
,”
IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
513
525
.
9.
Nielsen
,
J.
, 1993, “
Iterative User Interfaces Design
,”
IEEE Comput.
,
26
(
11
), pp.
32
41
.
10.
Poupyrev
,
I.
,
Weghorst
,
S.
,
Billinghurst
,
M.
, and
Ichikawa
,
T.
, 1997, “
A Framework and Testbed for Studying Manipulation Techniques for Immersive VR
,”
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on VR Systems
, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp.
21
28
.
11.
Stanney
,
K.
,
Mollaghasemi
,
M.
,
Reaves
,
L.
,
Breaux
,
R.
, and
Graeber
,
D.
, 2003, “
Usability Engineering of Virtual Environments: Identifying Multiple Criteria
,”
Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud.
,
58
(
4
), pp.
447
481
.
12.
Kotranza
,
A.
,
Lok
,
B.
,
Deladisma
,
A.
,
Carla
M.
, and
Lind
,
D.
, 2009, “
Mixed Reality Humans: Evaluating Behavior, Usability, and Acceptability
,”
IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph.
,
15
(
3
), pp.
369
382
.
13.
Disz
,
T.
,
Papka
,
M.
,
Pellegrino
,
M.
, and
Stevens
,
R.
, 1995, “
Sharing Visualization Experiences Among Remote Virtual Environments
,”
Proceedings of the International Workshop on High Performance Computing for Computer Graphics and Applications
.
14.
Sreedharan
,
S.
,
Zurita
,
E.
, and
Plimmer
,
B.
, 2007, “
3D Input for 3D Worlds
,”
251 ed.
, Proceedings of OZCHI.
15.
Simon
, 2005, Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality, published 11/07/2005 First Person Experience and Usability of Co-Located Interaction in a Projection-Based Virtual Environment, pp.
23
30
.
16.
Patel
,
H.
,
Stefani
,
O.
,
Sharples
,
S.
,
Hoffman
,
H.
,
Kraseitanidis
,
I.
, and
Amditis
,
A.
, 2006, “
Human Centered Design of 3-D Interaction Devices to Control Virtual Environments
,”
Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud.
,
64
(
3
), pp.
207
220
.
17.
Chu
,
C.
,
Dani
,
T.
, and
Gadh
,
R.
, 1998, “
Evaluation of Virtual Reality Interface for Product Shape Designs
,”
IIE Trans.
,
30
(
7
), pp.
629
643
.
18.
Nomura
,
J.
, and
Sawada
,
K.
, 1999, “
Virtual Reality Technology and its Applications to Industrial Use
,”
Control Eng. Pract.
,
7
(
11
), pp.
1381
1394
.
19.
Ware
,
C.
,
Arthur
,
K.
, and
Booth
,
K.
, 1993, “
Fish Tank Virtual Reality
,”
Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
,
Amsterdam
,
The Netherlands
, pp.
37
42
.
20.
Bolt
,
R.
, and
Herranz
,
E.
, 1992, “
Two-Handed Gesture in Multi-Modal Natural Dialog
,”
Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface, Software, and Technology
,
ACM
,
Monterey, CA
, pp.
7
18
.
21.
Wexelblat
,
A.
, 1995, “
An Approach to Natural Gesture in Virtual Environments
,”
ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact.
,
2
(
3
), pp.
179
200
.
22.
UMI Dissertation Services from ProQuest, UMI Microform No. 3226934.
Satter
,
K.
, 2005, “
Competitive Usability Studies of Virtual Environments for Shipbuilding
.” Ph.D. Engineering Management, University of New Orleans.
23.
GraphPad Software, 2003, INSTAT, San Diego, CA.
24.
SAS Institute
, 1999,
SAS for Windows
,
00M0 ed.
,
SAS Institute
,
Cary, NC
.
25.
Motulsky
,
H.
, 2003,
The INSTAT Guide to Choosing and Interpreting Statistical Tests
,
GraphPad Software
,
San Diego, CA
.
26.
Garwood
,
D.
, 2005,
UNO-Satter-112905 Fakesapce CAVE System Quotation
,
Marshalltown
,
IA
.
27.
Storch
,
R.
,
Harmon
,
C.
,
Bunch
,
H.
, and
Moore
,
R.
, 1995,
Ship Production
,
2nd ed.
,
Cornell Maritime Press
.
28.
Staff Writer
, 2005,
Cost Overruns, Budget Uncertainties Hurting USN and Contractors
,
New Orleans Times-Picayune
.
29.
Shalal-Esa
,
A.
, 2005, Pentagon May Scale Back Navy DD(X) Destroyer, Reuters, Ed., DefenseTalk Andrew Shai-Esa, Reuters News, Tuesday, November 8, 2005, http://DefenseTalp.com/News Publish/Article004040.phphttp://DefenseTalp.com/News Publish/Article004040.php.
30.
Wikipedia Staff, 2005, Virginia Class Submarine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Class_Submarinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Class_Submarine, accessed November 12, 2005.
31.
Butler
,
A.
, January 28, 2005, “
Return on Investment (ROI) Analysis for the Implementation of a STEP AP 227 Format for Interoperable HVAC Design
,” Final Report, submitted for the Integrated Shipbuilding Environments—3 Project, sponsored by the National Shipbuilding Research Program.
You do not currently have access to this content.