In traditional product development, several iterations are usually necessary to obtain a successful compromise between constraints emanating from engineering, manufacturing, and aesthetics. Moreover, this approach to product development is not well suited for true mass-customization, as the manufacturing company remains in control of all aspects of the shape of the product-to-be. In this article, we propose an alternative approach that would (1) allow for an improved integration of industrial design into the product development process and (2) enhance the creative repertoire of industrial designers, which (3) would result in significantly improved prospects for mass-customization. The industrial design process may benefit from using advanced and aesthetically interesting morphologies emanating from the areas of mathematics and nature. Such complex morphologies can only be manipulated (analyzed and represented) by means of specific algorithms. On one hand, this requires a shift from established industrial design practice, where the industrial designer is in total control of the product form; on the other hand, it makes it fully possible to compute form so that it complies with engineering and manufacturing constraints. In this setup, the industrial designer still has control of the final result, in that she or he can choose from a set of valid forms. This approach would greatly reduce the number of iterations in the product development process between industrial design, engineering, and production. Naturally, such an approach also allows for advanced mass-customization by allowing consumers to use these tools. Within this approach, a table generation system has been developed: A system that generates tables whose support structure is based on a Voronoi diagram that fulfills structural and manufacturing constraints while being aesthetically appealing.

1.
Hopf
,
A.
, 2009, “
Renaissance 2.0—Expanding the Morphologic Repertoire in Design
,”
24th Cumulus Conference 24/09
, pp.
78
85
.
2.
Pearce
,
P.
, 1978,
Structure in Nature is a Strategy for Design
,
MIT
,
Cambridge, MA
.
3.
Oxman
,
R.
, 2006, “
Theory and Design in the First Digital Age
,”
Des. Stud.
0142-694X,
27
(
3
), pp.
229
265
.
4.
Shea
,
K.
, 2004, “
Explorations in Using an Aperiodic Spatial Tiling as a Design Generator
,”
First Design Computing and Cognition Conference DCC ‘04
, pp.
137
156
.
5.
Vincent
,
J. F. V.
, and
Mann
,
D. L.
, 2002, “
Systematic Technology Transfer From Biology to Engineering
,”
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A
0962-8428,
360
(
1791
), pp.
159
173
.
6.
Chakrabarti
,
A.
,
Sarkar
,
P.
,
Leelavathamma
,
B.
, and
Nataraju
,
B. S.
, 2005, “
A Functional Representation for Aiding Biomimetic and Artificial Inspiration of New Ideas
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
0890-0604,
19
(
2
), pp.
113
132
.
7.
Velcro
,
S. A.
, 1955, “
Improvements in or Relating to a Method and a Device for Producing a Velvet Type Fabric
,” Swiss Patent No. 721338.
8.
Hutchinson
,
H.
, 2008, “
Beyond the Shark Skin Suit
,”
Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.)
0025-6501,
130
(
4
), pp.
42
44
.
9.
McCormack
,
J.
,
Dorin
,
A.
, and
Innocent
,
T.
, 2004, “
Generative Design: A Paradigm for Design Research
,”
Futureground
.
10.
Knight
,
T. W.
, 1980, “
The Generation of Hepplewhite-Style Chair-Back Designs
,”
Environ. Plann. B
0308-2164,
7
(
2
), pp.
227
238
.
11.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Cagan
,
J.
,
Pawlicki
,
R.
, and
Smith
,
R. C.
, 2006, “
Creating Cross-Over Vehicles: Defining and Combining Vehicle Classes Using Shape Grammars
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
0890-0604,
20
(
3
), pp.
217
246
.
12.
McCormack
,
J. P.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Vogel
,
C. M.
, 2004, “
Speaking the Buick Language: Capturing, Understanding, and Exploring Brand Identity With Shape Grammars
,”
Des. Stud.
0142-694X,
25
(
1
), pp.
1
29
.
13.
Pugliese
,
M. J.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 2002, “
Capturing a Rebel: Modeling the Harley–Davidson Brand Through a Motorcycle Shape Grammar
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
0934-9839,
13
(
3
), pp.
139
156
.
14.
Chau
,
H. H.
,
Chen
,
X.
,
McKay
,
A.
, and
de Pennington
,
A.
, 2004, “
Evaluation of a 3D Shape Grammar Implementation
,”
First Design Computing and Cognition Conference DCC ‘04
, pp.
357
376
.
15.
Shea
,
K.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 1999, “
Languages and Semantics of Grammatical Discrete Structures
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
0890-0604,
13
(
4
), pp.
241
251
.
16.
Trubidge
,
D.
, 2004, “
Coral [Lamp]
,”
Desire—The Shape of Things to Come
,
R.
Klanten
,
S.
Ehmann
,
A.
Kupetz
,
S.
Moreno
, and
A.
Mollard
, eds.,
Die Gestalten Verlag
,
Berlin
, p.
113
.
17.
Wertel
,
J.
, and
Oberfell
,
G.
, 2007, “
Fractal-T [Table]
,”
Desire—The Shape of Things to Come
,
R.
Klanten
,
S.
Ehmann
,
A.
Kupetz
,
S.
Moreno
, and
A.
Mollard
, eds.,
Die Gestalten Verlag
,
Berlin
, p.
134
.
18.
van der Veer
,
B.
, 2007, “
Paper [Table]
,”
Desire—The Shape of Things to Come
,
R.
Klanten
,
S.
Ehmann
,
A.
Kupetz
,
S.
Moreno
, and
A.
Mollard
, eds.,
Die Gestalten Verlag
,
Berlin
, p.
99
.
19.
Mayor
,
J.
, 2007, “
Burnout Bench [Bench]
,”
Desire—The Shape of Things to Come
,
R.
Klanten
,
S.
Ehmann
,
A.
Kupetz
,
S.
Moreno
, and
A.
Mollard
, eds.,
Die Gestalten Verlag
,
Berlin
, p.
117
.
20.
Sharfman
,
B.
, 2006, “
Mercedes and the Boxfish
,”
The Scientist
1759-796X,
20
(
9
), pp.
17
18
.
21.
Cheng
,
K.
,
Harrison
,
D. K.
, and
Jiang
,
Z.
, 2002, “
An Integrated Concurrent Engineering Approach to the Design and Manufacture of Complex Components
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
0268-3768,
20
(
5
), pp.
319
325
.
22.
Simpson
,
T. W.
,
Siddique
,
Z.
, and
Jiao
,
J. R.
, 2005,
Product Platform and Product Family Design: Methods and Applications
,
Springer
,
New York
.
23.
Huang
,
G. Q.
,
Li
,
L.
, and
Chen
,
X.
, 2007, “
A Tandem Evolutionary Algorithm for Platform Product Customization
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
7
(
2
), pp.
151
159
.
24.
Lakhani
,
K. R.
, and
Kanji
,
Z.
, 2009, Threadless: The Business of Community, Harvard Business School Multimedia/Video Case 608–707, Harvard Business School, Cambridge, MA.
25.
von Hippel
,
E.
, 1988,
The Sources of Innovation
,
Oxford University Press
,
New York, NY
.
26.
von Hippel
,
E.
, 2005,
Democratizing Innovation
,
MIT
,
Cambridge, MA
.
27.
Blecker
,
T.
, and
Friedrich
,
G.
, 2006,
Mass Customization: Challenges and Solutions
,
Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
,
Boston, MA
.
28.
Miettinen
,
K.
, 2008, “
Introduction to Multiobjective Optimization: Noninteractive Approaches
,”
Multiobjective Optimization: Interactive and Evolutionary Approaches
,
D.
Hutchison
,
J.
Branke
,
K.
Deb
,
T.
Kanade
,
J.
Kittler
,
J. M.
Kleinberg
,
F.
Mattern
,
K.
Miettinen
,
J. C.
Mitchell
,
M.
Naor
,
O.
Nierstrasz
,
C.
Pandu Rangan
,
R.
Slowinski
,
B.
Steffen
,
M.
Sudan
,
D.
Terzopoulos
,
D.
Tygar
,
M. Y.
Vardi
, and
G.
Weikum
, eds.,
Springer
,
Berlin
, pp.
1
26
.
29.
Miettinen
,
K.
,
Ruiz
,
F.
, and
Wierzbicki
,
A. P.
, 2008, “
Introduction to Multiobjective Optimization: Interactive Approaches
,”
Multiobjective Optimization: Interactive and Evolutionary Approaches
,
D.
Hutchison
,
J.
Branke
,
K.
Deb
,
T.
Kanade
,
J.
Kittler
,
J. M.
Kleinberg
,
F.
Mattern
,
K.
Miettinen
,
J. C.
Mitchell
,
M.
Naor
,
O.
Nierstrasz
,
C.
Pandu Rangan
,
R.
Slowinski
,
B.
Steffen
,
M.
Sudan
,
D.
Terzopoulos
,
D.
Tygar
,
M. Y.
Vardi
, and
G.
Weikum
, eds.,
Springer
,
Berlin
, pp.
27
57
.
30.
Koza
,
J. R.
,
Keane
,
M. A.
,
Streeter
,
M. J.
,
Adams
,
T. P.
, and
Jones
,
L. W.
, 2004, “
Invention and Creativity in Automated Design by Means of Genetic Programming
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
0890-0604,
18
(
3
), pp.
245
269
.
31.
Holland
,
J. H.
, 1975,
Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis With Applications to Biology, Control and Artificial Intelligence
,
University of Michigan Press
,
Ann Arbor, MI
.
32.
Coello
,
C. A.
, 2000, “
An Updated Survey of GA-Based Multiobjective Optimization Techniques
,”
ACM Comput. Surv.
0360-0300,
32
(
2
), pp.
109
143
.
33.
Aurenhammer
,
F.
, 1991, “
Voronoi Diagrams—A Survey of a Fundamental Geometric Data Structure
,”
ACM Comput. Surv.
0360-0300,
23
(
3
), pp.
345
405
.
34.
Beukers
,
A.
, and
van Hinte
,
E.
, 2005,
Lightness: The Inevitable Renaissance of Minimum Energy Structures
,
4th ed.
,
010 Publishers
,
Rotterdam
.
35.
de Berg
,
M.
,
Cheong
,
O.
,
van Kreveld
,
M.
, and
Overmars
,
M.
, 2008,
Computational Geometry—Algorithms and Applications
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
.
36.
Fayolle
,
C.
, 2006, “
The Future is Less to Discover Than to Invent (in French. Original Title: L’avenir est moins à découvrir qu’à inventer)
,”
Biennale Internationale Design Saint-Etienne
, Cité du Design, Saint-Etienne,
E.
Francès
, ed., Vol.
336
, p.
126
.
37.
TMF/SCB
, 2009, TMF in Figures—Statistics on the Swedish Tree and Furniture Industry (in Swedish. Original Title: TMF i siffror—Statistik om den svenska trä—och möbelindustrin), No. 1, MTF, Stockholm.
38.
FERRUM Lasercut GmbH
, personal communication.
39.
Linde Metall AB
, personal communication.
40.
Giger
,
M.
, and
Ermanni
,
P.
, 2006, “
Evolutionary Truss Topology Optimization Using a Graph-Based Parameterization Concept
,”
Struct. Multidiscip. Optim.
1615-147X,
32
(
4
), pp.
313
326
.
41.
Austrell
,
P. E.
,
Dahlblom
,
O.
,
Lindemann
,
J.
,
Olsson
,
A.
,
Olsson
,
K. -G.
,
Persson
,
K.
,
Petersson
,
H.
,
Ristinmaa
,
M.
,
Sandberg
,
G.
, and
Wernberg
,
P. -A.
, 2004,
CALFEM: A Finite Element Toolbox—Version 3.4
, Structural Mechanics LTH,
Lund University
,
Lund
.
43.
Hutchison
,
D.
,
Branke
,
J.
,
Deb
,
K.
,
Kanade
,
T.
,
Kittler
,
J.
,
Kleinberg
,
J. M.
,
Mattern
,
F.
,
Miettinen
,
K.
,
Mitchell
,
J. C.
,
Naor
,
M.
,
Nierstrasz
,
O.
,
Pandu Rangan
,
C.
,
Slowinski
,
R.
,
Steffen
,
B.
,
Sudan
,
M.
,
Terzopoulos
,
D.
,
Tygar
,
D.
,
Vardi
,
M. Y.
, and
Weikum
,
G.
, 2008,
Multiobjective Optimization: Interactive and Evolutionary Approaches
,
Springer
,
Berlin
.
44.
Schoenauer
,
M.
, and
Xanthakis
,
S.
, 1993, “
Constrained GA Optimization
,”
Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms—ICGA ‘93
, pp.
573
580
.
45.
Nordin
,
A.
,
Motte
,
D.
,
Hopf
,
A.
,
Bjärnemo
,
R.
, and
Eckhardt
,
C. -C.
, 2010, “
Complex Product Form Generation in Industrial Design: A Bookshelf Based on Voronoi Diagrams
,”
Fourth Design Computing and Cognition Conference—DCC ‘10
, pp.
701
720
.
You do not currently have access to this content.