With up to 12 spring-damper groups distributed in the actual area of a rail pad, different fastening models are developed in this paper to include the nonuniform pressure distribution within a fastening system and model the constraints at the rail bottom more realistically for the purpose of high frequency dynamics between vehicle and track. Applied to a 3D transient FE model of the vehicle-track interaction, influence of the fastening modeling on the high frequency dynamic contact forces at singular rail surface defects (SRSDs) is examined. Two defect models, one is relatively large and the other is small, are employed. Such a work is of practical significance because squats, as a kind of SRSD, have become a wide spread problem. Results show that the fastening modeling plays an important role in the high frequency dynamic contact forces at SRSDs. Supports in the middle of the rail bottom, modeled as spring-damper groups located under rail web, are found to be most important. The less the rail bottom is constrained or supported, the more isolated the sleepers and substructure are from the wheel-rail interaction, and the more kinetic energy is kept in the rail after impact at a SRSD. Rolling speed is also varied to take into account its influence. Finally, based on the results of this work, influence of the service states of the fastening system on growth of relatively small SRSDs is discussed.

References

References
1.
Fermér
,
M.
, and
Nielsen
,
J. C. O.
,
1995
, “
Vertical Interaction between Train and Track With Soft and Stiff Railpads — Full-Scale Experiments and Theory
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., F. J. Rail Rapid Transit
,
209
(
1
), pp.
39
47
.10.1243/PIME_PROC_1995_209_253_02
2.
Egana
,
J. I.
,
Vinolas
,
J.
, and
Seco
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Investigation of the Influence of Rail Pad Stiffness on Rail Corrugation on a Transit System
,”
Wear
,
261
, pp.
216
224
.10.1016/j.wear.2005.10.004
3.
Kumaran
,
G.
,
Menon
,
D.
, and
Krishnan Nair
,
K.
,
2003
, “
Dynamic Studies of Rail Track Sleepers in a Track Structure System
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
268
, pp.
485
501
.10.1016/S0022-460X(02)01581-X
4.
Vincent
,
N.
,
Bouvet
,
P.
,
Thompson
,
D. J.
, and
Gautier
,
P. E.
,
1996
, “
Theoretical Optimization of Track Components to Reduce Rolling Noise
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
193
(
1
), pp.
161
171
.10.1006/jsvi.1996.0255
5.
Kaewunruen
,
S.
, and
Remennikov
,
A. M.
,
2006
, “
Sensitivity Analysis of Free Vibration Characteristics of an in situ Railway Concrete Sleeper to Variations of Rail Pad Parameters
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
298
, pp.
453
461
.10.1016/j.jsv.2006.05.034
6.
Grassie
,
S. L.
,
1996
, “
Models of Railway Track and Vehicle-Track Interaction at High Frequencies: Results of Benchmark Test
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
25
(
suppl.
), pp.
243
262
.10.1080/00423119608969199
7.
Wu
,
T. X.
, and
Thompson
,
D. J.
,
2004
, “
On the Parametric Excitation of the Wheel-Track System
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
278
, pp.
725
747
.10.1016/j.jsv.2003.10.047
8.
Steenbergen
,
M. J. M. M.
,
2008
, “
Wheel-Rail Interaction at Short-Wave Irregularities
,” Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
9.
Knothe
,
K.
, and
Groß-Thebing
,
A.
,
2008
, “
Short Wavelength Rail Corrugation and Non-Steady-State Contact Mechanics
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
46
, pp.
49
66
.10.1080/00423110701590180
10.
Knothe
,
K.
, and
Grassie
,
S. L.
,
1993
, “
Modelling of Railway Track and Vehicle/Track Interaction at High Frequencies
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
22
, pp.
209
262
.10.1080/00423119308969027
11.
Fenander
,
Å.
,
1997
, “
Frequency Dependent Stiffness and Damping of Railpads
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., F. J. Rail Rapid Transit
,
211
, pp.
51
62
.10.1243/0954409971530897
12.
Maes
,
J.
,
Sol
,
H.
, and
Guillaume
,
P.
,
2006
, “
Measurement of the Dynamic Railpad Properties
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
293
, pp.
557
565
.10.1016/j.jsv.2005.08.042
13.
Carrascal
,
I. A.
,
Casado
,
J. A.
,
Polanco
,
J. A.
, and
Gutiérrez-Solana
,
F.
,
2007
, “
Dynamic Behaviour of Railway Fastening Setting Pads
,”
Eng. Failure Anal.
,
14
, pp.
364
373
.10.1016/j.engfailanal.2006.02.003
14.
Remennikov
,
A.
,
Kaewunruen
,
S.
, and
Ikaunieks
,
K.
,
2006
, “
Deterioration of Dynamic Rail Pad Characteristics
,”
Proceedings of Conference on Railway Engineering
, Melbourne, pp.
174
179
.
15.
Li
,
Z.
,
Zhao
,
X.
,
Esveld
,
C.
,
Dollevoet
,
R.
, and
Molodova
,
M.
,
2008
, “
An Investigation Into the Causes of Squats: Correlation Analysis and Numerical Modeling
,”
Wear
,
265
, pp.
1349
1355
.10.1016/j.wear.2008.02.037
16.
Zhao
,
X.
,
Li
,
Z.
, and
Liu
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Wheel-Rail Impact and the Dynamic Forces at Discrete Supports of Rails in the Presence of Singular Rail Surface Defects
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., F. J. Rail Rapid Transit
,
226
, pp.
124
139
.10.1177/0954409711413975
17.
Wen
,
Z.
,
Jin
,
X.
, and
Zhang
,
W.
,
2005
, “
Contact-Impact Stress Analysis of Rail Joint Region Using the Dynamic Finite Element Method
,”
Wear
,
258
, pp.
1301
1309
.10.1016/j.wear.2004.03.040
18.
Pang
,
T.
, and
Dhanasekar
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of the Wheel–Rail Interaction Adjacent to the Insulated Joints
,”
Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems (CM2006)
, Brisbane, Australia, Sept. 24–26, pp.
509
516
.
19.
Knothe
,
K.
, and
Wu
,
Y.
,
1998
, “
Receptance Behaviour of Railway Track and Subgrade
,”
Arch. Appl. Mech.
,
68
, pp.
457
470
.10.1007/s004190050179
20.
Kouroussis
,
G.
,
Gazetas
,
G.
,
Anastasopoulos
,
I.
,
Conti
,
C.
, and
Verlinden
,
O.
,
2011
, “
Discrete Modelling of Vertical Track–Soil Coupling for Vehicle–Track Dynamics
,”
Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng.
,
31
, pp.
1711
1723
.10.1016/j.soildyn.2011.07.007
21.
Benson
,
D. J.
, and
Hallquist
,
J. O.
,
1990
, “
A Single Surface Contact Algorithm for the Post-Buckling Analysis of Shell Structures
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.
,
78
, pp.
141
163
.10.1016/0045-7825(90)90098-7
22.
Zhao
,
X.
, and
Li
,
Z.
,
2011
, “
The Solution of Frictional Wheel–Rail Rolling Contact With A 3D Transient Finite Element Model: Validation and Error Analysis
,”
Wear
,
271
, pp.
444
452
.10.1016/j.wear.2010.10.007
23.
Molodova
,
M.
,
Li
,
Z.
, and
Dollevoet
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Axle Box Acceleration: Measurement and Simulation for Detection of Short Track Defects
,”
Wear
,
271
, pp.
349
356
.10.1016/j.wear.2010.10.003
You do not currently have access to this content.