The paper presents a stochastic approach to estimate the aerodynamic forces with local dynamics on wind turbine blades in unsteady wind inflow. This is done by integrating a stochastic model of lift and drag dynamics for an airfoil into the aerodynamic simulation software AeroDyn. The model is added as an alternative to the static table lookup approach in blade element momentum (BEM) wake model used by AeroDyn. The stochastic forces are obtained for a rotor blade element using full field turbulence simulated wind data input and compared with the classical BEM and dynamic stall models for identical conditions. The comparison shows that the stochastic model generates additional extended dynamic response in terms of local force fluctuations. Further, the comparison of statistics between the classical BEM, dynamic stall, and stochastic models' results in terms of their increment probability density functions (PDFs) gives consistent results.

References

References
1.
Tchakoua
,
P.
,
Wamkeue
,
R.
,
Ouhrouche
,
M.
,
Hasnaoui
,
F. S.
,
Tameghe
,
T. A.
, and
Ekemb
,
G.
,
2014
. “
Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring: State-of-the-Art Review, New Trends, and Future Challenges
,”
Energies
,
7
(
4
), pp.
2595
2630
.10.3390/en7042595
2.
Vermeer
,
L. J.
,
Sørensen
,
J. N.
, and
Crespo
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Wind Turbine Wake Aerodynamics
,”
Prog. Aerosp. Sci.
,
39
(
6–7
), pp.
467
510
.10.1016/S0376-0421(03)00078-2
3.
Liu
,
S.
, and
Janajreh
,
I.
,
2012
, “
Development and Application of an Improved Blade Element Momentum Method Model on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
,”
Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng.
,
3
, p.
30
.10.1186/2251-6832-3-30
4.
Åhlund
,
K.
,
2004
, “
Investigation of the NREL NASA/Ames Wind Turbine Aerodynamics Database
,” Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden, Scientific Report No. FOI-R–1243–SE.
5.
Hansen
,
M. O. L.
, and
Madsen
,
H. A.
,
2011
, “
Review Paper on Wind Turbine Aerodynamics
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
133
(
11
), p.
114001
.10.1115/1.4005031
6.
Jonkman
,
J. M.
, and
Buhl
,
M. L.
, Jr.
,
2005
, “
FAST User's Guide
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL/EL-500-38230.
7.
Laino
,
D. J.
, and
Hansen
,
A. C.
,
2003
, “
User's Guide to the Wind Turbine Dynamics Computer Program YawDyn
,” Prepared for NREL Under Subcontract, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Technical Report No. TCX-9-29209-01.
8.
Laino
,
D. J.
, and
Hansen
,
A. C.
,
2001
, “
User's Guide to the Computer Software Routines AeroDyn Interface for ADAMS
,” Prepared for NREL Under Subcontract, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Technical Report No. TCX-9-29209-01.
9.
Mulski
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Simpack Multi-Body Simulation
,”
Proceedings of the Wind and Drivetrain Conference
,
Hamburg, Germany
, Sept. 26.
10.
Buhl
,
M. L.
, Jr.
, and
Manjock
,
A.
,
2006
, “
A Comparison of Wind Turbine Aeroelastic Codes Used for Certification
,”
Conference Paper National Renewable Energy Laboratory
,
Golden, CO
, Report No. NREL/CP-500-39113.
11.
Øye
,
S.
,
1999
, “
FLEX5 User Manual
,” Danske Techniske Hogskole, Technical Report Ver. 5.
12.
Moriarty
,
P. J.
, and
Hansen
,
A. C.
,
2005
, “
AeroDyn Theory Manual
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL/EL-500-36881.
13.
Weinzierl
,
G.
,
2011
, “
A BEM Based Simulation-Tool for Wind Turbine Blades With Active Flow Control Elements
,” Diploma thesis, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
14.
Luhur
,
M. R.
,
Peinke
,
J.
,
Schneemann
,
J.
, and
Wächter
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Stochastic Modeling of Lift and Drag Dynamics Under Turbulent Wind Inflow Conditions
,”
Wind Energy
(in press)10.1002/we.1699.
15.
Laino
,
D. J.
, and
Hansen
,
A. C.
,
2002
, “
User's Guide to the Wind Turbine Aerodynamics Computer Software AeroDyn
,” Prepared for NREL Under Subcontract, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Technical Report No. TCX-9-29209-01.
16.
Kelley
,
N. D.
, and
Jonkman
,
B. J.
,
2007
, “
Overview of the TurbSim Stochastic Inflow Turbulence Simulator
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL/TP-500-41137.
17.
Jonkman
,
B. J.
, and
Kilcher
,
L.
,
2012
, “
TurbSim User's Guide
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report Draft Ver. 1.06.00.
18.
Méndez
,
J.
, and
Greiner
,
D.
,
2006
, “
Wind Blade Chord and Twist Angle Optimization by Using Genetic Algorithms
,”
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Engineering Computational Technology
,
B.
Topping
,
G.
Montero
, and
R.
Montenegro
, eds., Civil-Comp Press, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, Sept. 6, pp.
12
15
.
19.
Manwell
,
J. F.
,
McGowan
,
J. G.
, and
Rogers
,
A. L.
,
2009
,
Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application
,
2nd ed.
,
Wiley
,
Chichester, UK
.
20.
Glauert
,
H.
,
1935
, “
Airplane Propellers
,”
Aerodynamic Theory
,
W. F.
Durand
, ed.,
Springer
,
Berlin, Germany
10.1002/9781119994367.
21.
Buhl
,
M. L.
, Jr.
,
2005
, “
A New Empirical Relationship Between Thrust Coefficient and Induction Factor for the Turbulent Windmill State
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL/TP-500-36834.
22.
Glauert
,
H.
,
1926
, “
A General Theory of the Autogyro
,”
Vol. 1111, Reports and Memoranda
,
British ARC
,
London, UK
.
23.
Glauert
,
H.
,
1926
, “
The Analysis of Experimental Results in the Windmill Brake and Vortex Ring States of an Airscrew
,”
Vol. 1126, Reports and Memoranda
,
HMSO
,
London, UK
.
24.
Pitt
,
D. M.
, and
Peters
,
D. A.
,
1981
, “
Theoretical Prediction of Dynamic-Inflow Derivatives
,”
Vertica
,
5
(
1
), pp.
21
34
.
25.
Coleman
,
R. P.
,
Feingold
,
A. M.
, and
Stempin
,
C. W.
,
1945
, “
Evaluation of the Induced-Velocity Field of an Idealized Helicopter Rotor
,” Wartime, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, Report No. NACA ARR L5E10.
26.
Burton
,
T.
,
Sharpe
,
D.
,
Jenkins
,
N.
, and
Bossanyi
,
E.
,
2011
,
Wind Energy Handbook
,
2nd ed.
,
Wiley
,
Chichester, UK
10.1002/9781119992714.
27.
Risken
,
H.
,
1996
,
The Fokker–Planck Equation
,
2nd ed.
,
Springer
,
Berlin, Germany
10.1007/978-3-642-61544-3.
28.
Cordle
,
A.
,
2010
, “
State-of-the-Art in Design Tools for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines
,” Deliverable Report Under (SES6), UpWind project, Bristol, UK, Contract No. 019945.
29.
Stoevesandt
,
B.
, and
Peinke
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Effects of Sudden Changes in Inflow Conditions on the Angle of Attack on HAWT Blades
,” Cornell University Library, November, p. 18, e-print arXiv:1011.5396 [stat.AP].
30.
Jonkman
,
J.
,
2014
, personal communication.
31.
Morales
,
A.
,
Wächter
,
M.
, and
Peinke
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Characterization of Wind Turbulence by Higher Order Statistics
,”
Wind Energy
,
15
(
3
), pp.
391
406
.10.1002/we.478
You do not currently have access to this content.