This article presents three multibody formulations with improved efficiency in order to achieve real-time simulations for the forward dynamic of two real-life road vehicles. The bigger is a semitrailer truck with 40 degrees of freedom (DOF). Two topological and semirecursive formulations are used as well as a global formulation based on the use of Euler parameters and flexible joints. The first semirecursive formulation carries out a double velocity transformation and the integration is done by means of the explicit fourth order Runge–Kutta method. The second semirecursive formulation and the global one use a penalty scheme at position level and orthogonal projections at velocity and acceleration levels. In both cases the integrator was the implicit Hilbert–Huges–Taylor (HHT) method. The double velocity transformation method involves the coordinate partitioning of the constraint Jacobian matrix which leads to the costly solution of a redundant but consistent with the constraints linear system of equations. The choice of a unique set of independent coordinates may not be valid for a complete simulation and additional repartitioning would be required. Based on previous experience and as the examples show in this article, a careful initial choice of the independent coordinates can remain valid for complete simulations involving common maneuvers. This represents a numerical advantage for dense matrix methods and can be further exploited if sparse matrix techniques are employed. This has been the case for both of the vehicles used, reaching real-time simulations even with the semitrailer truck. The implicit semirecursive formulation involves the numerical evaluation of the stiffness and damping matrices, which hamper obtaining real-time simulations. For the semitrailer truck, this computation represents the 76% of the total simulation time. The numerical computation of these matrices is carried out by columns and its algorithm is straightforwardly parallelizable. Using a quad-core processor and with a simple and efficient OpenMP implementation, it has been possible to achieve a speedup of 3.25 reducing the simulation times under the real-time limit. The sparse matrices of Euler parameters formulation show very different sparsity degrees, difference that grows with the size of the multibody model. This poses a challenge to sparse matrix implementations in order to be able to efficiently perform matrix operations without increasing fillings or handling zero entries. This has been successfully accomplished using a new sparse matrix representation. This one is not a feature of general purpose sparse software, requiring at some stages the implementation of our own algorithms. Reductions in time of three orders of magnitude have led to real-time simulations even with the semitrailer truck.
Real-Time Dynamic Simulations of Large Road Vehicles Using Dense, Sparse, and Parallelization Techniques
Manuscript received October 1, 2013; final manuscript received October 9, 2014; published online February 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Corina Sandu.
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Hidalgo, A. F., and García de Jalón, J. (May 1, 2015). "Real-Time Dynamic Simulations of Large Road Vehicles Using Dense, Sparse, and Parallelization Techniques." ASME. J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam. May 2015; 10(3): 031005. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4028794
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