Abstract

Full-depth reclamation (FDR) materials are a type of cold-recycled bituminous mixes that are composed of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and virgin aggregates. FDR is often treated with a binder in order to obtain cohesion. It is common to use bitumen emulsion, foam asphalt, and cement. In many parts of the world, when bitumen emulsion or foamed asphalt is used, cement is added as a cobinder to accelerate the curing process and cement hydration produces calcium silicate hydrate that may contribute to mechanical and durability properties. However, because cement creates fragile bonds, too much cement could be problematic for FDR. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the cement proportion on fracture resistance of the FDR materials containing 50 % RAP and 50 % aggregate. Five proportions of the cement were added to the mixtures: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 %. Semicircular bending (SCB) tests were used to evaluate the cracking resistance of the mixture using the strain energy release rate (Jc). A total of 120 semicircular specimens were tested at intermediate temperatures, where 60 specimens were tested in wet condition to investigate the moisture sensitivity. The flexibility index (FI) and the cracking resistance index (CRI) were used to analyze the flexibility and brittleness of the mixtures. Results have shown that the FDR mixtures are more resistant to cracking as the cement content increases. The FI values, ranging between 1.32 and 4.74, revealed that a high percentage of added cement (4 and 5 %) contributes to making the samples behave like brittle mixtures. The CRI results showed a similar trend as the FI results.

References

1.
Bergeron
G.
, “
Performance des techniques de retraitement en place et de recyclage à froid au Québec
,” in
Congrès annuel de 2005 de l’Association des transports du Canada
(
Ottawa, Canada
:
Association des transports du Canada
,
2005
). http://web.archive.org/web/20190628021033/http://conf.tac-atc.ca/english/resourcecentre/readingroom/conference/conf2005/docs/s19/bergeron-f.pdf
2.
Gandi
A.
,
Kagabo
J. N.
,
Carter
A.
, and
Singh
D.
, “
Study of the Use of Confining Pressure when Measuring the Complex Modulus of Full-Depth Reclamation Materials
,” in
Proceedings of the Sixtieth Annual Conference of the Canadian Technical Asphalt Association (CTAA)
(
Victoria, Canada
:
Canadian Technical Asphalt Associtation
,
2015
).
3.
Niazi
Y.
and
Jalili
M.
, “
Effect of Portland Cement and Lime Additives on Properties of Cold In-Place Recycled Mixtures with Asphalt Emulsion
,”
Construction and Building Materials
23
, no. 
3
(March
2009
):
1338
1343
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.07.020
4.
Kim
Y.
and
Lee
H. D.
, “
Performance Evaluation of Cold In-Place Recycling Mixtures Using Emulsified Asphalt Based on Dynamic Modulus, Flow Number, Flow Time, and Raveling Loss
,”
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
16
, no. 
4
(May
2012
):
586
593
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-012-1376-0
5.
Behnood
A.
,
Gharehveran
M. M.
,
Asl
F. G.
, and
Ameri
M.
, “
Effects of Copper Slag and Recycled Concrete Aggregate on the Properties of CIR Mixes with Bitumen Emulsion, Rice Husk Ash, Portland Cement and Fly Ash
,”
Construction and Building Materials
96
(October
2015
):
172
180
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.08.021
6.
Thanaya
I.
, “
Improving the Performance of Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEMs) Incorporating Waste Materials
” (PhD dissertation,
University of Leeds
,
2003
).
7.
Ameri
M.
and
Behnood
A.
, “
Laboratory Studies to Investigate the Properties of CIR Mixes Containing Steel Slag as a Substitute for Virgin Aggregates
,”
Construction and Building Materials
26
, no. 
1
(January
2012
):
475
480
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.06.047
8.
Omrani
M. A.
and
Modarres
A.
, “
Stiffness and Fatigue Behavior of Emulsified Cold Recycled Mixture Containing Waste Powder Additives: Mechanical and Microstructural Analysis
,”
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering
31
, no. 
6
(June
2019
): 04019061. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002704
9.
Saadoon
T.
,
Gómez-Meijide
B.
, and
Garcia
A.
, “
Prediction of Water Evaporation and Stability of Cold Asphalt Mixtures Containing Different Types of Cement
,”
Construction and Building Materials
186
(October
2018
):
751
761
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.218
10.
Dolzycki
B.
,
Jaczewski
M.
, and
Szydlowski
C.
, “
The Long-Term Properties of Mineral-Cement-Emulsion Mixtures
,”
Construction and Building Materials
156
(December
2017
):
799
808
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.09.032
11.
Bocci
M.
,
Grilli
A.
,
Cardone
F.
, and
Graziani
A.
, “
A Study on the Mechanical Behaviour of Cement–Bitumen Treated Materials
,”
Construction and Building Materials
25
, no. 
2
(February
2011
):
773
778
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.07.007
12.
Graziani
A.
,
Godenzoni
C.
,
Cardone
F.
, and
Bocci
M.
, “
Effect of Curing on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cold-Recycled Bituminous Mixtures
,”
Materials & Design
95
(April
2016
):
358
369
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.01.094
13.
Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
, ASTM E1820-18 (
West Conshohocken, PA
:
ASTM International
, approved November 1,
2018
). https://doi.org/10.1520/E1820-18AE01
14.
Standard Test Method for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness KIC of Metallic Materials
, ASTM E399-17 (
West Conshohocken, PA
:
ASTM International
, approved November 15,
2017
). https://doi.org/10.1520/E0399-17
15.
Kim
Y.-R.
, “
Cohesive Zone Model to Predict Fracture in Bituminous Materials and Asphaltic Pavements: State-of-the-Art Review
,”
International Journal of Pavement Engineering
12
, no. 
4
(
2011
):
343
356
. https://doi.org/10.1080/10298436.2011.575138
16.
Ozer
H.
,
Al-Qadi
I. L.
,
Lambros
J.
,
El-Khatib
A.
,
Singhvi
P.
, and
Doll
B.
, “
Development of the Fracture-Based Flexibility Index for Asphalt Concrete Cracking Potential Using Modified Semi-Circle Bending Test Parameters
,”
Construction and Building Materials
115
(July
2016
):
390
401
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.03.144
17.
Elseifi
M.A.
,
Mohammad
L.N.
,
Ying
H.
, and
Cooper
S.
 III
, “
Modeling and evaluation of the cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures using the semi-circular bending test at intermediate temperatures
,”
Road Materials and Pavement Design
13
(sup1) (
2012
)
124
139
. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2012.657035
18.
Li
X.
,
Marasteanu
M. O.
,
Williams
R. C.
, and
Clyne
T. R.
, “
Effect of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (Proportion and Type) and Binder Grade on Asphalt Mixtures
,”
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
2051
, no. 
1
(January
2008
):
90
97
. https://doi.org/10.3141/2051-11
19.
Aliha
M.
,
Fakhri
M.
,
Kharrazi
E. H.
, and
Berto
F.
, “
The Effect of Loading Rate on Fracture Energy of Asphalt Mixture at Intermediate Temperatures and under Different Loading Modes
,”
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale
12
, no. 
43
(January
2018
):
113
132
. https://doi.org/10.3221/IGF-ESIS.43.09
20.
Kaseer
F.
,
Yin
F.
,
Arámbula-Mercado
E.
,
Martin
A. E.
,
Daniel
J. S.
, and
Salari
S.
, “
Development of an Index to Evaluate the Cracking Potential of Asphalt Mixtures Using the Semi-Circular Bending Test
,”
Construction and Building Materials
167
(April
2018
):
286
298
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.02.014
21.
Ozer
H.
,
Al-Qadi
I. L.
,
Singhvi
P.
,
Khan
T.
,
Rivera-Perez
J.
, and
El-Khatib
A.
, “
Fracture Characterization of Asphalt Mixtures with High Recycled Content Using Illinois Semicircular Bending Test Method and Flexibility Index
,”
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
2575
, no. 
1
(
2016
):
130
137
. https://doi.org/10.3141/2575-14
22.
Godenzoni
C.
,
Graziani
A.
, and
Corinaldesi
V.
, “
The Influence Mineral Additions on the Failure Properties of Bitumen Emulsion Mortars
,” in
Eighth RILEM International Conference on Mechanisms of Cracking and Debonding in Pavements
(
New York, NY
:
Springer
,
2016
),
327
333
.
23.
Charmot
S.
and
Romero
P.
, “
Assessment of Fracture Parameters to Predict Field Cracking Performance of Cold In-Place Recycling Mixtures
,”
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
2155
, no. 
1
(January
2010
):
34
42
. https://doi.org/10.3141/2155-04
24.
Standard Test Method for Asphalt Content of Hot-Mix Asphalt by Ignition Method
, ASTM D6307-10 (
West Conshohocken, PA
:
ASTM International
, approved December 1,
2010
). https://doi.org/10.1520/D6307-10
25.
Méthode de formulation à froid des matériaux recyclés stabilisés à l’émulsion
, LC 26-002 (
Montréal, Canada
:
Le Ministère des Transports du Québec (MTQ)
,
2001
).
26.
Chen
X.
and
Solaimanian
M.
, “
Evaluating the Effect of Long Term Aging on Fracture Properties of Asphalt Concrete Using Semi-Circular Bend Test
” (paper presentation, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 13–17,
2019
).
27.
Raschia
S.
,
Graziani
A.
,
Carter
A.
, and
Perraton
D.
, “
Influence of RAP Source and Nominal Maximum Size on Volumetric and Physical Properties of Cement Bitumen Treated Materials
” (paper presentation, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 13–17,
2019
).
28.
Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Asphalt Mixture Cracking Resistance Using the Semi-Circular Bend Test (SCB) at Intermediate Temperatures
, ASTM D8044-16 (
West Conshohocken, PA
:
ASTM International
, approved July 1,
2016
). https://doi.org/10.1520/D8044-16
29.
Wegman
D. E.
and
Sabouri
M.
,
Optimizing Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) Applications through Fracture Energy Performance Testing, Final Report 2016-21
(
St. Paul, MN
:
Minnesota Department of Transportation, Research Services & Library
,
2016
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.