Abstract

Fine aggregate characteristics have an important influence on water demand and related properties of concrete. Several test methods for measurement of fine aggregate angularity are reported in the literature. These tests typically provide a single number that represents the bulk, or average angularity of the sand. An understanding of the relationship between bulk measures of angularity, individual particle geometry and shape characteristics, and concrete properties is important to aggregate producers, concrete suppliers, consulting engineers, other design professionals, particularly as existing deposits of sand are consumed and alternate sources must be developed. As part of a comprehensive research program on manufactured sand properties and their effects on fresh and hardened concrete properties, an image analysis technique was developed to determine the shape characteristics by photographing and analyzing sets of individual grains of sand. The outlines of the grains were analyzed using a variety of geometrically derived characteristics. The relationship between particle shape characteristics and a common measure of bulk angularity, void content (ASTM C 1252), was then examined. Results of the study indicated that void content was significantly influenced by the presence of deep indentations in the surface of the sand particle and deviations from a cubical particle shape.

References

1.
Box
,
G. E. P.
,
Hunter
,
W. G.
, and
Hunter
,
J. S.
,
1978
,
Statistics for Experimenters
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
New York
, 653 p.
2.
Cross
,
S. A.
,
Smith
,
B. J.
, and
Clowers
,
K. A.
,
1994
, “
Evaluation of Fine Aggregate Angularity Using National Aggregate Association Flow Test
,”
Transportation Research Record
 1437,
Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington D.C.
, pp.
43
50
.
3.
Dilek
,
U.
, “
Effects of Manufactured Sand Characteristics on Properties of Concrete
,” Doctoral Dissertation,
North Carolina State University
,
08
2000
.
4.
Galloway
,
J. E.
,
1994
, “
Grading, Shape and Surface Properties
,”
Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials
, ASTM STP169 C,
West Conshohocken, PA
, pp.
401
410
.
5.
Gaynor
,
R. D.
and
Meininger
,
R. C.
,
12
1983
, “
Evaluating Concrete Sands
,”
Concrete International
,
American Concrete Institute
,
Farmington Hills, MI
, pp.
53
60
.
6.
Huang
,
E. Y.
,
1962
, “
A Test for Evaluating the Geometric Characteristics of Coarse Aggregate Particles
,”
Proceedings of the American Society for Testing and Materials
, Vol.
62
, pp.
1223
1442
.
7.
Hudson
,
B. P.
,
08
1995
, “
Effect of Manufactured Aggregate and Sand Shape on Concrete Production and Placement
,”
Svedala Barmac Technical Publication, Svedala New Zealand Ltd.
,
Matamata, New Zealand
, 9 p.
8.
Mather
,
B., 1955
, “
Shape, Surface Texture, and Coatings
,”
Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials
, ASTM STP 169 A,
Phildapelphia, PA
, pp.
284
296
.
9.
McKeagney
,
R. B.
,
06
1985
, “
Stone Sand, Are Specifications Appropriate?
Pit and Quarry Magazine
, Advanstar Communications, Cleveland, OH, pp.
57
60
.
10.
Mitchell
,
J. F.
and
Leming
,
M. L.
,
05
1998
, “
Quantity of Alkali Silica Gel and Its Effect on Concrete Properties
,”
Journal of Materials In Civil Engineering
 0899-1561, Vol.
10
, No.
2
, American Society of Civil Engineers, NY, pp.
106
111
.
11.
Ozol
,
M. A.
,
1978
, “
Shape, Surface Texture, Surface Area and Coatings
,”
Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials
, ASTM STP 169 B,
West Conshohocken, PA
, pp.
584
628
.
12.
Rex
,
H. M.
,
Peck
,
R. A.
,
12
1956
, “
A Laboratory Test to Evaluate the Shape and Surface Texture of Fine Aggregate Particles
,”
Public Roads
 0033-3735, Vol.
29
, No
5
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.