Rigid interspinous process fixation (RIPF) has been recently discussed as an alternative to pedicle screw fixation (PSF) for reducing trauma in lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) surgery. This study aimed to investigate biomechanics of the lumbar spine with RIPF, and also to compare biomechanical differences between two postoperative stages (before and after bony fusion). Based on an intact finite-element model of lumbosacral spine, the models of single-level LIF with RIPF or conventional PSF were developed and were computed for biomechanical responses to the moments of four physiological motions using hybrid testing protocol. It was found that compared with PSF, range of motion (ROM), intradiscal pressure (IDP), and facet joint forces (FJF) at adjacent segments of the surgical level for RIPF were decreased by up to 8.4%, 2.3%, and 16.8%, respectively, but ROM and endplate stress at the surgical segment were increased by up to 285.3% and 174.3%, respectively. The results of comparison between lumbar spine with RIPF before and after bony fusion showed that ROM and endplate stress at the surgical segment were decreased by up to 62.6% and 40.4%, respectively, when achieved to bony fusion. These findings suggest that lumbar spine with RIPF as compared to PSF has potential to decrease the risk of adjacent segment degeneration but might have lower stability of surgical segment and an increased risk of cage subsidence; When achieved bony fusion, it might be helpful for the lumbar spine with RIPF in increasing stability of surgical segment and reducing failure of bone contact with cage.