Abstract

Mechanical models of adipose tissue are important for various medical applications including cosmetics, injuries, implantable drug delivery systems, plastic surgeries, biomechanical applications such as computational human body models for surgery simulation, and blunt impact trauma prediction. This article presents a comprehensive review of in vivo experimental approaches that aimed to characterize the mechanical properties of adipose tissue, and the resulting constitutive models and model parameters identified. In particular, this study examines the material behavior of adipose tissue, including its nonlinear stress–strain relationship, viscoelasticity, strain hardening and softening, rate-sensitivity, anisotropy, preconditioning, failure behavior, and temperature dependency.

References

References
1.
Cinti
,
S.
,
2006
, “
The Role of Brown Adipose Tissue in Human Obesity
,”
Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.
,
16
(
8
), pp.
569
574
.10.1016/j.numecd.2006.07.009
2.
Ouchi
,
N.
,
Parker
,
J. L.
,
Lugus
,
J. J.
, and
Walsh
,
K.
,
2011
, “
Adipokines in Inflammation and Metabolic Disease
,”
Nat. Rev. Immunol.
,
11
(
2
), pp.
85
97
.10.1038/nri2921
3.
Bjorntorp
,
P.
, and
Martinsson
,
A.
,
2009
, “
The Composition of Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Relation to Its Morphology
,”
Acta Med. Scand.
,
179
(
4
), pp.
475
481
.10.1111/j.0954-6820.1966.tb05485.x
4.
Mersmann
,
H. J.
,
Goodman
,
J. R.
, and
Brown
,
L. J.
,
1975
, “
Development of Swine Adipose Tissue: Morphology and Chemical Composition
,”
J. Lipid Res.
,
16
(
4
), pp.
269
279
.10.1016/S0022-2275(20)36714-6
5.
Sun
,
Z.
,
Lee
,
S.-H.
,
Gepner
,
B. D.
,
Rigby
,
J.
,
Hallman
,
J. J.
, and
Kerrigan
,
J. R.
,
2021
, “
Comparison of Porcine and Human Adipose Tissue Loading Responses Under Dynamic Compression and Shear: A Pilot Study
,”
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
,
113
, p.
104112
.10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104112
6.
Comley
,
K.
, and
Fleck
,
N. A.
,
2010
, “
The Toughness of Adipose Tissue: Measurements and Physical Basis
,”
J. Biomech.
,
43
(
9
), pp.
1823
1826
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.02.029
7.
Comley
,
K.
, and
Fleck
,
N. A.
,
2010
, “
A Micromechanical Model for the Young's Modulus of Adipose Tissue
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
47
(
21
), pp.
2982
2990
.10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2010.07.001
8.
Engelbrektsson
,
K.
,
2011
,
Evaluation of Material Models in LS-DYNA for Impact Simulation of White Adipose Tissue
,
Chalmers University of Technology
, Gothenburg, Sweden.
9.
Comley
,
K.
, and
Fleck
,
N.
,
2009
, “
The Mechanical Response of Porcine Adipose Tissue
,” J. Biomech. Eng., pp.
1
30
.
10.
Abrahamson
,
D. R.
,
1986
, “
Recent Studies on the Structure and Pathology of Basement Membranes
,”
J. Pathol.
,
149
(
4
), pp.
257
278
.10.1002/path.1711490402
11.
Geerligs
,
M.
,
Peters
,
G. W. M.
,
Ackermans
,
P. A. J.
,
Oomens
,
C. W. J.
, and
Baaijens
,
F. P. T.
,
2010
, “
Does Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Behave as an (Anti-)Thixotropic Material?
,”
J. Biomech.
,
43
(
6
), pp.
1153
1159
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.11.037
12.
Gefen
,
A.
, and
Haberman
,
E.
,
2007
, “
Viscoelastic Properties of Ovine Adipose Tissue Covering the Gluteus Muscles
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
, 129(6), pp.
924
930
.10.1115/1.2800830
13.
Shoham
,
N.
, and
Gefen
,
A.
,
2012
, “
The Influence of Mechanical Stretching on Mitosis, Growth, and Adipose Conversion in Adipocyte Cultures
,”
Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol.
,
11
(
7
), pp.
1029
1045
.10.1007/s10237-011-0371-6
14.
Calvo-Gallego
,
J. L.
,
Domínguez
,
J.
,
Gómez Cía
,
T.
,
Gómez Ciriza
,
G.
, and
Martínez-Reina
,
J.
,
2018
, “
Comparison of Different Constitutive Models to Characterize the Viscoelastic Properties of Human Abdominal Adipose Tissue. A Pilot Study
,”
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
,
80
, pp.
293
302
.10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.02.013
15.
Azar
,
F. S.
,
Metaxas
,
D. N.
, and
Schnall
,
M. D.
,
2001
, “
A Deformable Finite Element Model of the Breast for Predicting Mechanical Deformations Under External Perturbations
,”
Acad. Radiol.
,
8
(
10
), pp.
965
975
.10.1016/S1076-6332(03)80640-2
16.
Pianigiani
,
S.
,
Ruggiero
,
L.
, and
Innocenti
,
B.
,
2015
, “
An Anthropometric-Based Subject-Specific Finite Element Model of the Human Breast for Predicting Large Deformations
,”
Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
,
3
, p.
201
.10.3389/fbioe.2015.00201
17.
Han
,
L.
,
Hipwell
,
J. H.
,
Tanner
,
C.
,
Taylor
,
Z.
,
Mertzanidou
,
T.
,
Cardoso
,
J.
,
Ourselin
,
S.
, and
Hawkes
,
D. J.
,
2012
, “
Development of Patient-Specific Biomechanical Models for Predicting Large Breast Deformation
,”
Phys. Med. Biol.
,
57
(
2
), pp.
455
472
.10.1088/0031-9155/57/2/455
18.
Sun
,
Z.
,
Gepner
,
B. D.
,
Lee
,
S.-H.
,
Rigby
,
J.
,
Singh
,
N.
, and
Kerrigan
,
J. R.
,
2020
, “
Determination of Strain Rate in Modelling Belt‐Flesh‐Pelvis Interaction During Frontal Crashes
,”
IRCOBI Asia Conference Proceedings
, Beijing, China, May, pp.
130
133
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343178878_Determination_of_strain_rate_in_modelling_belt-flesh-pelvis_interaction_during_frontal_crashes
19.
Sun
,
Z.
,
Gepner
,
B.
, and
Kerrigan
,
J.
,
2019
, “
New Approaches in Modeling Belt-Flesh-Pelvis Interaction Using Obese GHBMC Models
,”
ESV Conference Proceedings
, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, June 10–13, Paper No.
19-0241
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343228876_New_approaches_in_modeling_belt-flesh-pelvis_interaction_using_obese_GHBMC_models
20.
Gepner
,
B.
,
Joodaki
,
H.
,
Sun
,
Z.
,
Jayathirtha
,
M.
,
Kim
,
T.
,
Forman
,
J. L.
, and
Kerrigan
,
J. R.
,
2018
, “
Performance of the Obese GHBMC Models in the Sled and Belt Pull Test Conditions
,”
IRCOBI Conference Proceedings
, Athens, Greece, Sept. 12–14, Paper No.
IRC-18-60
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331558895_Performance_of_the_Obese_GHBMC_Models_in_the_Sled_and_Belt_Pull_Test_Conditions
21.
Naseri
,
H.
,
Iraeus
,
J.
, and
Johansson
,
H.
,
2020
, “
The Effect of Adipose Tissue Material Properties on the Lap Belt-Pelvis Interaction: A Global Sensitivity Analysis
,”
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater
,
107
, p.
103739
.10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.103739
22.
Naseri
,
H.
,
Johansson
,
H.
, and
Brolin
,
K.
,
2018
, “
A Nonlinear Viscoelastic Model for Adipose Tissue Representing Tissue Response at a Wide Range of Strain Rates and High Strain Levels
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
140
(
4
), p.
041009
.10.1115/1.4038200
23.
Liberati
,
A.
,
Altman
,
D. G.
,
Tetzlaff
,
J.
,
Mulrow
,
C.
,
Gøtzsche
,
P. C.
,
Ioannidis
,
J. P. A.
,
Clarke
,
M.
,
Devereaux
,
P. J.
,
Kleijnen
,
J.
, and
Moher
,
D.
,
2009
, “
The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Healthcare Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration
,”
BMJ
,
339
(
1
), pp.
b2700
b2700
.10.1136/bmj.b2700
24.
Jahss
,
M. H.
,
Kummer
,
F.
, and
Michelson
,
J. D.
,
1992
, “
Investigations Into the Fat Pads of the Sole of the Foot: Heel Pressure Studies
,”
Foot Ankle
,
13
(
5
), pp.
227
232
.10.1177/107110079201300501
25.
Rome
,
K.
,
1998
, “
Mechanical Properties of the Heel Pad: Current Theory and Review of the Literature
,”
Foot
,
8
(
4
), pp.
179
185
.10.1016/S0958-2592(98)90026-8
26.
Grigoriadis
,
G.
,
Newell
,
N.
,
Carpanen
,
D.
,
Christou
,
A.
,
Bull
,
A. M. J.
, and
Masouros
,
S. D.
,
2017
, “
Material Properties of the Heel Fat Pad Across Strain Rates
,”
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
,
65
, pp.
398
407
.10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.09.003
27.
Ramião
,
N. G.
,
Martins
,
P. S.
,
Rynkevic
,
R.
,
Fernandes
,
A. A.
,
Barroso
,
M.
, and
Santos
,
D. C.
,
2016
, “
Biomechanical Properties of Breast Tissue, a State-of-the-Art Review
,”
Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol.
,
15
(
5
), pp.
1307
1323
.10.1007/s10237-016-0763-8
28.
Brouwer
,
I.
,
Ustin
,
J.
,
Bentiey
,
L.
,
Dhruv
,
A.
, and
Tendick
,
F.
,
2001
,
Measuring In Vivo Animal Soft Tissue Properties for Haptic Modeling in Surgical
,
IOS Press
,
Amsterdam
, The Netherlands, p.
69
.
29.
Joodaki
,
H.
, and
Panzer
,
M. B.
,
2018
, “
Skin Mechanical Properties and Modeling: A Review
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. [H]
,
232
(
4
), pp.
323
343
.10.1177/0954411918759801
30.
Giammarinaro
,
B.
,
Zorgani
,
A.
, and
Catheline
,
S.
,
2018
, “
Shear-Wave Sources for Soft Tissues in Ultrasound Elastography
,”
IRBM
,
39
(
4
), pp.
236
242
.10.1016/j.irbm.2018.01.002
31.
Alkhouli
,
N.
,
Mansfield
,
J.
,
Green
,
E.
,
Bell
,
J.
,
Knight
,
B.
,
Liversedge
,
N.
,
Tham
,
J. C.
,
Welbourn
,
R.
,
Shore
,
A. C.
,
Kos
,
K.
, and
Winlove
,
C. P.
,
2013
, “
The Mechanical Properties of Human Adipose Tissues and Their Relationships to the Structure and Composition of the Extracellular Matrix
,”
Am. J. Physiol.-Endocrinol. Metab.
,
305
(
12
), pp.
E1427
E1435
.10.1152/ajpendo.00111.2013
32.
Chen
,
K.
, and
Weiland
,
J. D.
,
2011
, “
Mechanical Properties of Orbital Fat and Its Encapsulating Connective Tissue
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
133
(
6
), p.
064505
.10.1115/1.4004289
33.
Iatridis
,
J. C.
,
Wu
,
J.
,
Yandow
,
J. A.
, and
Langevin
,
H. M.
,
2003
, “
Subcutaneous Tissue Mechanical Behavior is Linear and Viscoelastic Under Uniaxial Tension
,”
Connect. Tissue Res.
,
44
(
5
), pp.
208
217
.10.1080/03008200390244069
34.
Sommer
,
G.
,
Eder
,
M.
,
Kovacs
,
L.
,
Pathak
,
H.
,
Bonitz
,
L.
,
Mueller
,
C.
,
Regitnig
,
P.
, and
Holzapfel
,
G. A.
,
2013
, “
Multiaxial Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Modeling of Human Adipose Tissue: A Basis for Preoperative Simulations in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
,”
Acta Biomater.
,
9
(
11
), pp.
9036
9048
.10.1016/j.actbio.2013.06.011
35.
Voňavková
,
T.
,
Horný
,
L.
,
Kulvajtová
,
M.
, and
Žitný
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Uniaxial Tensile Test Perivascular Adipose Tissue
,”
Bull. Appl. Mech.
, 10(36), pp.
11
14
.http://users.fs.cvut.cz/~hornyluk/files/Vonavkova-2014-Uniaxial-tensile-test-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue.pdf
36.
Comley
,
K.
, and
Fleck
,
N.
,
2012
, “
The Compressive Response of Porcine Adipose Tissue From Low to High Strain Rate
,”
Int. J. Impact Eng.
,
46
, pp.
1
10
.10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2011.12.009
37.
Sun
,
Z.
,
Lee
,
S.-H.
,
Gepner
,
B. D.
,
Cottler
,
P. S.
,
Hallman
,
J. J.
, and
Kerrigan
,
J. R.
,
2021
, “
Multidirectional Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Modeling of Human Adipose Tissue Under Dynamic Loading
,” Acta Biomater., ePub.
38.
Sims
,
A. M.
,
Stait-Gardner
,
T.
,
Fong
,
L.
,
Morley
,
J. W.
,
Price
,
W. S.
,
Hoffman
,
M.
,
Simmons
,
A.
, and
Schindhelm
,
K.
,
2010
, “
Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Porcine Subdermal Fat Using MRI and Inverse FEA
,”
Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol.
,
9
(
6
), pp.
703
711
.10.1007/s10237-010-0207-9
39.
Sun
,
Z.
,
Gepner
,
B. D.
,
Lee
,
S.-H.
,
Oyen
,
M.
,
Rigby
,
J.
,
Cottler
,
P. S.
,
Hallman
,
J. J.
, and
Kerrigan
,
J. R.
,
2021
, “
Effect of Temperature and Freezing on Human Adipose Tissue Material Properties Characterized by High-Rate Indentation-Puncture Testing
,” J. Biomech. Eng., ePub.
40.
Krouskop
,
T. A.
,
Wheeler
,
T. M.
,
Kallel
,
F.
,
Garra
,
B. S.
, and
Hall
,
T.
,
1998
, “
Elastic Moduli of Breast and Prostate Tissues Under Compression
,”
Ultrason. Imag.
,
20
(
4
), pp.
260
274
.10.1177/016173469802000403
41.
Samani
,
A.
,
Zubovits
,
J.
, and
Plewes
,
D.
,
2007
, “
Elastic Moduli of Normal and Pathological Human Breast Tissues: An Inversion-Technique-Based Investigation of 169 Samples
,”
Phys. Med. Biol.
,
52
(
6
), pp.
1565
1576
.10.1088/0031-9155/52/6/002
42.
Samani
,
A.
, and
Plewes
,
D.
,
2004
, “
A Method to Measure the Hyperelastic Parameters of Ex Vivo Breast Tissue Samples
,”
Phys. Med. Biol.
,
49
(
18
), pp.
4395
4405
.10.1088/0031-9155/49/18/014
43.
Umemoto
,
T.
,
Ueno
,
E.
,
Matsumura
,
T.
,
Yamakawa
,
M.
,
Bando
,
H.
,
Mitake
,
T.
, and
Shiina
,
T.
,
2014
, “
Ex Vivo and In Vivo Assessment of the Non-Linearity of Elasticity Properties of Breast Tissues for Quantitative Strain Elastography
,”
Ultrasound Med. Biol.
,
40
(
8
), pp.
1755
1768
.10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.02.005
44.
Wellman
,
P. S.
,
Howe
,
R. D.
,
Dalton
,
E.
, and
Kern
,
K. A.
, “
Breast Tissue Stiffness in Compression is Correlated to Histological Diagnosis
,” Harvard BioRobotics Laboratory, Cambridge, MA, Technical Report.http://www.biorobotics.harvard.edu/pubs/1999/mechprops.pdf
45.
Omidi
,
E.
,
Fuetterer
,
L.
,
Reza Mousavi
,
S.
,
Armstrong
,
R. C.
,
Flynn
,
L. E.
, and
Samani
,
A.
,
2014
, “
Characterization and Assessment of Hyperelastic and Elastic Properties of Decellularized Human Adipose Tissues
,”
J. Biomech.
,
47
(
15
), pp.
3657
3663
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.09.035
46.
Geerligs
,
M.
,
Peters
,
G. W. M.
,
Ackermans
,
P. A. J.
,
Oomens
,
C. W. J.
, and
Baaijens
,
F. P. T.
,
2008
, “
Linear Viscoelastic Behavior of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue
,”
Biorheology
,
45
(
6
), pp.
677
688
.10.3233/BIR-2008-0517
47.
Patel
,
P. N.
,
Smith
,
C. K.
, and
Patrick
,
C. W.
,
2005
, “
Rheological and Recovery Properties of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Diacrylate Hydrogels and Human Adipose Tissue
,”
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A
,
73A
(
3
), pp.
313
319
.10.1002/jbm.a.30291
48.
Schoemaker
,
I.
,
Hoefnagel
,
P. P. W.
,
Mastenbroek
,
T. J.
,
Kolff
,
C. F.
,
Schutte
,
S.
,
van der Helm
,
F. C. T.
,
Picken
,
S. J.
,
Gerritsen
,
A. F. C.
,
Wielopolski
,
P. A.
,
Spekreijse
,
H.
, and
Simonsz
,
H. J.
,
2006
, “
Elasticity, Viscosity, and Deformation of Orbital Fat
,”
Investig. Opthalmology Vis. Sci.
,
47
(
11
), p.
4819
.10.1167/iovs.05-1497
49.
Comley
,
K.
, and
Fleck
,
N.
,
2011
, “
Deep Penetration and Liquid Injection Into Adipose Tissue
,”
J. Mech. Mater. Struct.
,
6
(
1–4
), pp.
127
140
.10.2140/jomms.2011.6.127
50.
Miller-Young
,
J. E.
,
Duncan
,
N. A.
, and
Baroud
,
G.
,
2002
, “
Material Properties of the Human Calcaneal Fat Pad in Compression: Experiment and Theory
,”
J. Biomech.
,
35
(
12
), pp.
1523
1531
.10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00090-8
51.
Comley
,
K.
, and
Fleck
,
N. A.
,
2009
, “
The High Strain Rate Response of Adipose Tissue
,”
IUTAM Symposium on Mechanical Properties of Cellular Materials
,
H.
Zhao
, and
N. A.
Fleck
, eds.
Springer
, The
Netherlands
, pp.
27
33
.
52.
Then
,
C.
,
Vogl
,
T. J.
, and
Silber
,
G.
,
2012
, “
Method for Characterizing Viscoelasticity of Human Gluteal Tissue
,”
J. Biomech.
,
45
(
7
), pp.
1252
1258
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.01.037
53.
Seyfi
,
B.
,
Fatouraee
,
N.
, and
Samani
,
A.
,
2018
, “
A Novel Micro-to-Macro Structural Approach for Mechanical Characterization of Adipose Tissue Extracellular Matrix
,”
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
,
77
, pp.
140
147
.10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.09.006
54.
Hayes
,
W. C.
,
Keer
,
L. M.
,
Herrmann
,
G.
, and
Mockros
,
L. F.
,
1972
, “
A Mathematical Analysis for Indentation Tests of Articular Cartilage
,”
J. Biomech.
,
5
(
5
), pp.
541
551
.10.1016/0021-9290(72)90010-3
55.
Reese
,
S.
, and
Govindjee
,
S.
,
1998
, “
A Theory of Finite Viscoelasticity and Numerical Aspects
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
35
(
26–27
), pp.
3455
3482
.10.1016/S0020-7683(97)00217-5
56.
Calvo-Gallego
,
J. L.
,
Commisso
,
M. S.
,
Domínguez
,
J.
,
Tanaka
,
E.
, and
Martínez-Reina
,
J.
,
2017
, “
Effect of Freezing Storage Time on the Elastic and Viscous Properties of the Porcine TMJ Disc
,”
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
,
71
, pp.
314
319
.10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.03.035
57.
Mewis
,
J.
, and
Wagner
,
N. J.
,
2009
, “
Thixotropy
,”
Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.
,
147–148
, pp.
214
227
.10.1016/j.cis.2008.09.005
58.
Fung
,
Y.-C. B.
,
1973
, “
Biorheology of Soft Tissues
,”
Biorheology
,
10
(
2
), pp.
139
155
.10.3233/BIR-1973-10208
59.
Fung
,
Y.
,
1993
,
Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues
,
Springer Science & Business Media
, Berlin.
60.
Tonge
,
T. K.
,
Murienne
,
B. J.
,
Coudrillier
,
B.
,
Alexander
,
S.
,
Rothkopf
,
W.
, and
Nguyen
,
T. D.
,
2013
, “
Minimal Preconditioning Effects Observed for Inflation Tests of Planar Tissues
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
135
(
11
), pp.
114502
114502
.10.1115/1.4025105
61.
Lee
,
M.
,
Fung
,
Y.
,
Shabetai
,
R.
, and
LeWinter
,
M. M.
,
1987
, “
Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Human Pericardium and Canine Comparisons
,”
Am. J. Physiol.-Heart Circ. Physiol.
,
253
(
1
), pp.
H75
H82
.10.1152/ajpheart.1987.253.1.H75
62.
Munoz
,
M.
,
Bea
,
J.
,
Rodríguez
,
J.
,
Ochoa
,
I.
,
Grasa
,
J.
,
del Palomar
,
A. P.
,
Zaragoza
,
P.
,
Osta
,
R.
, and
Doblaré
,
M.
,
2008
, “
An Experimental Study of the Mouse Skin Behaviour: Damage and Inelastic Aspects
,”
J. Biomech.
,
41
(
1
), pp.
93
99
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.07.013
63.
Zeng
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Xu
,
C.
,
Xu
,
X.
,
Xu
,
H.
, and
Sun
,
G.
,
2004
, “
Biomechanical Properties of Skin In Vitro for Different Expansion Methods
,”
Clin. Biomech.
,
19
(
8
), pp.
853
857
.10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2004.05.009
64.
Naseri
,
H.
, and
Johansson
,
H.
,
2018
, “
A Priori Assessment of Adipose Tissue Mechanical Testing by Global Sensitivity Analysis
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
140
(
5
), p.
051008
.10.1115/1.4039176
65.
Budday
,
S.
,
Sommer
,
G.
,
Birkl
,
C.
,
Langkammer
,
C.
,
Haybaeck
,
J.
,
Kohnert
,
J.
,
Bauer
,
M.
,
Paulsen
,
F.
,
Steinmann
,
P.
,
Kuhl
,
E.
, and
Holzapfel
,
G. A.
,
2017
, “
Mechanical Characterization of Human Brain Tissue
,”
Acta Biomater.
,
48
, pp.
319
340
.10.1016/j.actbio.2016.10.036
You do not currently have access to this content.