Abstract

Musculoskeletal (MS) models can be used to study the muscle, ligament, and joint mechanics of natural knees. However, models that both capture subject-specific geometry and contain a detailed joint model do not currently exist. This study aims to first develop magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based subject-specific models with a detailed natural knee joint capable of simultaneously estimating in vivo ligament, muscle, tibiofemoral (TF), and patellofemoral (PF) joint contact forces and secondary joint kinematics. Then, to evaluate the models, the predicted secondary joint kinematics were compared to in vivo joint kinematics extracted from biplanar X-ray images (acquired using slot scanning technology) during a quasi-static lunge. To construct the models, bone, ligament, and cartilage structures were segmented from MRI scans of four subjects. The models were then used to simulate lunges based on motion capture and force place data. Accurate estimates of TF secondary joint kinematics and PF translations were found: translations were predicted with a mean difference (MD) and standard error (SE) of 2.13 ± 0.22 mm between all trials and measures, while rotations had a MD ± SE of 8.57 ± 0.63 deg. Ligament and contact forces were also reported. The presented modeling workflow and the resulting knee joint model have potential to aid in the understanding of subject-specific biomechanics and simulating the effects of surgical treatment and/or external devices on functional knee mechanics on an individual level.

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