Time-dependent arterial wall property is an important but difficult topic in vascular mechanics. Hysteresis, which appears during the measurement of arterial pressure–diameter relationship through a cardiac cycle, has been used to indicate time-dependent mechanics of arteries. However, the cause–effect relationship between viscoelastic (VE) properties of the arterial wall and hemodynamics, particularly the viscous contribution to hemodynamics, remains challenging. Herein, we show direct comparisons between elastic (E) (loss/storage < 0.1) and highly viscoelastic (loss/storage > 0.45) conduit structures with arterial-like compliance, in terms of their capability of altering pulsatile flow, wall shear, and energy level. Conduits were made from varying ratio of vinyl- and methyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) and were fit in a mimetic circulatory system measuring volumetric flow, pressure, and strain. Results indicated that when compared to elastic conduits, viscoelastic conduits attenuated lumen distension waveforms, producing an average of 11% greater cross-sectional area throughout a mimetic cardiac cycle. In response to such changes in lumen diameter strain, pressure and volumetric flow waves in viscoelastic conduits decreased by 3.9% and 6%, respectively, in the peak-to-peak amplitude. Importantly, the pulsatile waveforms for both diameter strain and volumetric flow demonstrated greater temporal alignment in viscoelastic conduits due to pulsation attenuation, resulting in 25% decrease in the oscillation of wall shear stress (WSS). We hope these findings may be used to further examine time-dependent arterial properties in disease prognosis and progression, as well as their use in vascular graft design.