Abstract

Articular cartilage is one of the most unique materials found in nature. This tissue's ability to provide low friction and low wear over decades of constant use is not surpassed, as of yet, by any synthetic materials. Lubrication of the body's joints is essential to mammalian locomotion, but breakdown and degeneration of cartilage is the leading cause of severe disability in the industrialized world. In this paper, we review how theories of cartilage lubrication have evolved over the past decades and connect how theories of cartilage lubrication have been translated to lubrication-based therapies. Here, we call upon these historical perspectives and highlight the open questions in cartilage lubrication research. Additionally, these open questions within the field's understanding of natural lubrication mechanisms reveal strategic directions for lubrication therapy.

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