In this study, coupled hemodynamic–acoustic simulations are employed to study the generation and propagation of murmurs associated with aortic stenoses where the aorta with a stenosed aortic valve is modeled as a curved pipe with a constriction near the inlet. The hemodynamics of the poststenotic flow is investigated in detail in our previous numerical study (Zhu et al., 2018, “Computational Modelling and Analysis of Haemodynamics in a Simple Model of Aortic Stenosis,” J. Fluid Mech., 851, pp. 23–49). The temporal history of the pressure on the aortic lumen is recorded during the hemodynamic study and used as the murmur source in the acoustic simulations. The thorax is modeled as an elliptic cylinder and the thoracic tissue is assumed to be homogeneous, linear and viscoelastic. A previously developed high-order numerical method that is capable of dealing with immersed bodies is applied in the acoustic simulations. To mimic the clinical practice of auscultation, the sound signals from the epidermal surface are collected. The simulations show that the source of the aortic stenosis murmur is located at the proximal end of the aortic arch and that the sound intensity pattern on the epidermal surface can predict the source location of the murmurs reasonably well. Spectral analysis of the murmur reveals the disconnect between the break frequency obtained from the flow and from the murmur signal. Finally, it is also demonstrated that the source locations can also be predicted by solving an inverse problem using the free-space Green's function. The implications of these results for cardiac auscultation are discussed.
Computational Modeling and Analysis of Murmurs Generated by Modeled Aortic Stenoses
Manuscript received July 27, 2018; final manuscript received February 3, 2019; published online March 5, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ching-Long Lin.
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Zhu, C., Seo, J., and Mittal, R. (March 5, 2019). "Computational Modeling and Analysis of Murmurs Generated by Modeled Aortic Stenoses." ASME. J Biomech Eng. April 2019; 141(4): 041007. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4042765
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