In a prior study, we proposed a novel monopolar expandable electrode (MEE) for use in radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The purpose of our work was to now validate and evaluate this electrode using on in vitro experimental model and computer simulation. Two commercially available RF electrodes (conventional electrode (CE) and umbrella electrode (UE)) were used to compare the ablation results with the novel MEE using an in vitro egg white model and in vivo liver tumor model to verify the efficacy of MEE in the large tumor ablation, respectively. The sharp increase in impedance during RFA procedures was taken as the termination of RFA protocols. In the in vitro egg white experiment, the ablation volume of MEE, CE, and UE was 75.3±1.6 cm3, 2.7±0.4 cm3, and 12.4±1.8 cm3 (P < 0.001), respectively. Correspondingly, the sphericity was 88.1±0.9%, 12.9±1.3%, and 62.0±3.0% (P < 0.001), respectively. A similar result was obtained in the in vitro egg white computer simulation. In the liver tumor computer simulation, the volume and sphericity of ablation zone generated by MEE, CE, and UE were 36.6 cm3 and 93.6%, 3.82 cm3 and 16.9%, and 13.5 cm3 and 56.7%, respectively. In summary, MEE has the potential to achieve complete ablation in the treatment of large tumors (>3 cm in diameter) compared to CE and UE due to the larger electrode–tissue interface and more round shape of hooks.

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