Most injury risk functions (IRFs) for dynamic axial loading of the leg have been targeted toward automotive applications such as predicting injury caused by intrusion into the occupant compartment from frontal collisions. Recent focus on leg injuries in the military has led to questions about the applicability of these IRFs shorter duration, higher amplitude loading associated with underbody blast (UBB). To investigate these questions, data were collected from seven separate test series that subjected post-mortem human legs to axial impact. A force and impulse-based Weibull survival model was developed from these studies to estimate fracture risk. Specimen age was included as a covariate to reduce variance and improve survival model fit. The injury criterion estimated 50% risk of injury for a leg exposed to 13 N s of impulse at peak force and 8.07 kN of force for force durations less than and greater than half the natural period of the leg, respectively. A supplemental statistical analysis estimated that the proposed IRF improves injury prediction accuracy by more than 9% compared to the predictions from automobile-based risk functions developed for automotive intrusion. The proposed leg IRF not only improves injury prediction for higher rate conditions but also provides a single injury prediction tool for an expanded range of load durations ranging from 5 to 90 ms, which spans both automotive and military loading environments.
An Injury Risk Function for the Leg, Foot, and Ankle Exposed to Axial Impact Loading Using Force and Impulse
Manuscript received February 18, 2018; final manuscript received November 4, 2018; published online December 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Brian D. Stemper.
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Bailey, A. M., McMurry, T. L., Salzar, R. S., and Crandall, J. R. (December 12, 2018). "An Injury Risk Function for the Leg, Foot, and Ankle Exposed to Axial Impact Loading Using Force and Impulse." ASME. J Biomech Eng. February 2019; 141(2): 021009. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4042012
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