Although uniaxial tensile testing is commonly used to evaluate failure properties of vascular tissue, there is no established protocol for specimen shape or gripping method. Large percentages of specimens are reported to fail near the clamp and can potentially confound the studies, or, if discarded will result in sample waste. The objective of this study is to identify sample geometry and clamping conditions that can achieve consistent failure in the midregion of small arterial specimens, even for vessels from older individuals. Failure location was assessed in 17 dogbone specimens from human cerebral and sheep carotid arteries using soft inserts. For comparison with commonly used protocols, an additional 22 rectangular samples were tested using either sandpaper or foam tape inserts. Midsample failure was achieved in 94% of the dogbone specimens, while only 14% of the rectangular samples failed in the midregion, the other 86% failing close to the clamps. Additionally, we found midregion failure was more likely to be abrupt, caused by cracking or necking. In contrast, clamp failure was more likely to be gradual and included a delamination mode not seen in midregion failure. Hence, this work provides an approach that can be used to obtain consistent midspecimen failure, avoiding confounding clamp-related artifacts. Furthermore, with consistent midregion failure, studies can be designed to image the failure process in small vascular samples providing valuable quantitative information about changes to collagen and elastin structure during the failure process.
A Uniaxial Testing Approach for Consistent Failure in Vascular Tissues
Manuscript received October 5, 2017; final manuscript received February 7, 2018; published online April 4, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Seungik Baek.
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Sang, C., Maiti, S., Fortunato, R. N., Kofler, J., and Robertson, A. M. (April 4, 2018). "A Uniaxial Testing Approach for Consistent Failure in Vascular Tissues." ASME. J Biomech Eng. June 2018; 140(6): 061010. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4039577
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