When aiming at assessing motor control development, natural walking (NW), and tandem walking (TW) are two locomotor tasks that allow analyzing different characteristics of motor control performance. NW is the reference locomotor task, expected to become more and more automatic with age. TW is a nonparadigmatic task used in clinics to highlight eventual impairments and to evaluate how a child deals with a new challenging motor experience. This work aims at investigating motor development in school-aged children, by assessing quantitatively their performance during TW and NW. Eighty children (6–10 years) participated in the study. Trunk acceleration data and nonlinear measures (recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and multiscale entropy (MSE)) were used to characterize trunk postural control and motor complexity. The results were analyzed with respect to age and standard clinical assessment of TW (number of correct consecutive steps), by means of Spearman correlation coefficients. RQA and MSE allowed highlighting age-related changes in both postural control of the trunk and motor complexity, while classic standard assessment of TW resulted uniformly distributed in the different age groups. The present results suggest this quantitative approach as relevant when assessing the motor development in schoolchildren and complementary to standard clinical tests.

References

References
1.
Hadders-Algra
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Variation and Variability: Key Words in Human Motor Development
,”
Phys. Ther.
,
90
(
12
), pp.
1823
1837
.
2.
Bisi
,
M. C.
, and
Stagni
,
R.
,
2016
, “
Complexity of Human Gait Pattern at Different Ages Assessed Using Multiscale Entropy: From Development to Decline
,”
Gait Posture
,
47
, pp.
37
42
.
3.
Ivanenko
,
Y. P.
,
Dominici
,
N.
,
Cappellini
,
G.
,
Dan
,
B.
,
Cheron
,
G.
, and
Lacquaniti
,
F.
,
2004
, “
Development of Pendulum Mechanism and Kinematic Coordination From the First Unsupported Steps in Toddlers
,”
J. Exp. Biol.
,
207
(
21
), pp.
3797
3810
.
4.
Martelli
,
S.
,
Taddei
,
F.
,
Cappello
,
A.
,
van Sint Jan
,
S.
,
Leardini
,
A.
, and
Viceconti
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Sub-Optimal Neuromotor Control on the Hip Joint Load During Level Walking
,”
J. Biomech.
,
44
(
9
), pp.
1716
1721
.
5.
Sanders
,
R. D.
, and
Gillig
,
P. M.
,
2010
, “
Gait and Its Assessment in Psychiatry
,”
Psychiatry Edgmont
,
7
(
7
), pp.
38
43
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2922365/
6.
Bisi
,
M. C.
, and
Stagni
,
R.
,
2018
, “
Changes of Human Movement Complexity During Maturation: Quantitative Assessment Using Multiscale Entropy
,”
Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng.
,
21
(
4
), pp.
325
331
.
7.
Ortega
,
J. D.
, and
Farley
,
C. T.
,
2005
, “
Minimizing Center of Mass Vertical Movement Increases Metabolic Cost in Walking
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
99
(
6
), pp.
2099
2107
.
8.
Gordon
,
K. E.
,
Ferris
,
D. P.
, and
Kuo
,
A. D.
,
2009
, “
Metabolic and Mechanical Energy Costs of Reducing Vertical Center of Mass Movement During Gait
,”
Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.
,
90
(
1
), pp.
136
144
.
9.
Cavagna
,
G. A.
,
Thys
,
H.
, and
Zamboni
,
A.
,
1976
, “
The Sources of External Work in Level Walking and Running
,”
J. Physiol.
,
262
(
3
), pp.
639
657
.
10.
Perry
,
J.
, and
Burnfield
,
J. M.
,
2010
,
Gait Analysis: Normal and Pathological Function
,
SLACK
, New York.
11.
Speers
,
R. A.
,
Ashton-Miller
,
J. A.
,
Schultz
,
A. B.
, and
Alexander
,
N. B.
,
1998
, “
Age Differences in Abilities to Perform Tandem Stand and Walk Tasks of Graded Difficulty
,”
Gait Posture
,
7
(
3
), pp.
207
213
.
12.
Goddard Blythe
,
S.
,
2014
,
Neuromotor Immaturity in Children and Adults: The INPP Screening Test for Clinicians and Health Practitioners
,
Wiley-Blackwell
, Hoboken, NJ.
13.
Huang
,
H. J.
,
Kram
,
R.
, and
Ahmed
,
A. A.
,
2012
, “
Reduction of Metabolic Cost During Motor Learning of Arm Reaching Dynamics
,”
J. Neurosci.
,
32
(
6
), pp.
2182
2190
.
14.
Zijlstra
,
W.
, and
Hof
,
A. L.
,
1997
, “
Displacement of the Pelvis During Human Walking: Experimental Data and Model Predictions
,”
Gait Posture
,
6
(
3
), pp.
249
262
.
15.
Bruijn
,
S. M.
,
Meijer
,
O. G.
,
Beek
,
P. J.
, and
van Dieën
,
J. H.
,
2013
, “
Assessing the Stability of Human Locomotion: A Review of Current Measures
,”
J. R. Soc. Interface
,
10
(
83
), p.
20120999
.
16.
Tamburini
,
P.
,
Storm
,
F.
,
Buckley
,
C.
,
Bisi
,
M. C.
,
Stagni
,
R.
, and
Mazzà
,
C.
,
2017
, “
Moving From Laboratory to Real Life Conditions: Influence on the Assessment of Variability and Stability of Gait
,”
Gait Posture
,
59
, pp.
248
252
.
17.
Sylos Labini
,
F.
,
Meli
,
A.
,
Ivanenko
,
Y. P.
, and
Tufarelli
,
D.
,
2012
, “
Recurrence Quantification Analysis of Gait in Normal and Hypovestibular Subjects
,”
Gait Posture
,
35
(
1
), pp.
48
55
.
18.
Bisi
,
M. C.
,
Riva
,
F.
, and
Stagni
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Measures of Gait Stability: Performance on Adults and Toddlers at the Beginning of Independent Walking
,”
J. Neuroeng. Rehabil.
,
11
, p.
131
.
19.
Tamburini
,
P.
,
Mazzoli
,
D.
, and
Stagni
,
R.
,
2018
, “
Towards an Objective Assessment of Motor Function in Sub-Acute Stroke Patients: Relationship Between Clinical Rating Scales and Instrumental Gait Stability Indexes
,”
Gait Posture
,
59
, pp.
58
64
.
20.
Barnett
,
A.
,
Henderson
,
S. E.
, and
Sugden
,
D. A.
,
2007
,
Movement Assessment Battery for Children
,
2nd ed.
,
Pearson
, London.
21.
Cacciari
,
E.
,
Milani
,
S.
,
Balsamo
,
A.
,
Spada
,
E.
,
Bona
,
G.
,
Cavallo
,
L.
,
Cerutti
,
F.
,
Gargantini
,
L.
,
Greggio
,
N.
,
Tonini
,
G.
, and
Cicognani
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Italian Cross-Sectional Growth Charts for Height, Weight and BMI (2 to 20 Yr)
,”
J. Endocrinol. Invest.
,
29
(
7
), pp.
581
593
.
22.
Hamacher
,
D.
,
Hamacher
,
D.
,
Herold
,
F.
, and
Schega
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Effect of Dual Tasks on Gait Variability in Walking to Auditory Cues in Older and Young Individuals
,”
Exp. Brain Res.
,
234
(
12
), pp.
3555
3563
.
23.
Bisi
,
M. C.
, and
Stagni
,
R.
,
2016
, “
Development of Gait Motor Control: What Happens After a Sudden Increase in Height During Adolescence?
,”
Biomed. Eng. Online
,
15
(
1
), p.
47
.
24.
Costa
,
M.
,
Peng
,
C.-K.
,
L. Goldberger
,
A.
, and
Hausdorff
,
J. M.
,
2003
, “
Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Human Gait Dynamics
,”
Phys. Stat. Mech. Its Appl.
,
330
(
1–2
), pp.
53
60
.
25.
Richman
,
J. S.
, and
Moorman
,
J. R.
,
2000
, “
Physiological Time-Series Analysis Using Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy
,”
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
,
278
(
6
), pp.
H2039
H2049
.
26.
Riva
,
F.
,
Bisi
,
M. C.
, and
Stagni
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Gait Variability and Stability Measures: Minimum Number of Strides and Within-Session Reliability
,”
Comput. Biol. Med.
,
50
, pp.
9
13
.
27.
Lockhart
,
T. E.
, and
Liu
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Differentiating Fall-Prone and Healthy Adults Using Local Dynamic Stability
,”
Ergonomics
,
51
(
12
), pp.
1860
1872
.
28.
Webber
,
C. L.
, and
Zbilut
,
J. P.
,
1994
, “
Dynamical Assessment of Physiological Systems and States Using Recurrence Plot Strategies
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
76
(
2
), pp.
965
973
.
29.
Kubo
,
M.
, and
Ulrich
,
B. D.
,
2006
, “
Early Stage of Walking: Development of Control in Mediolateral and Anteroposterior Directions
,”
J. Mot. Behav.
,
38
(
3
), pp.
229
237
.
You do not currently have access to this content.