Pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road users and comprise nearly 22% the road crash-related fatalities in the world. Therefore, protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian collisions (CPC) has recently generated increased attention with regulations involving three subsystem tests. The development of a finite element (FE) pedestrian model could provide a complementary component that characterizes the whole-body response of vehicle–pedestrian interactions and assesses the pedestrian injuries. The main goal of this study was to develop and to validate a simplified full body FE model corresponding to a 50th male pedestrian in standing posture (M50-PS). The FE model mesh and defined material properties are based on a 50th percentile male occupant model. The lower limb-pelvis and lumbar spine regions of the human model were validated against the postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) test data recorded in four-point lateral knee bending tests, pelvic\abdomen\shoulder\thoracic impact tests, and lumbar spine bending tests. Then, a pedestrian-to-vehicle impact simulation was performed using the whole pedestrian model, and the results were compared to corresponding PMHS tests. Overall, the simulation results showed that lower leg response is mostly within the boundaries of PMHS corridors. In addition, the model shows the capability to predict the most common lower extremity injuries observed in pedestrian accidents. Generally, the validated pedestrian model may be used by safety researchers in the design of front ends of new vehicles in order to increase pedestrian protection.

References

References
1.
WHO
,
2013
, Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
2.
NHTSA
,
2014
, “
2013 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview
,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC, accessed Sept. 1, 2017 http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812101.pdf
3.
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
Shin
,
J.
,
Crandall
,
J. R.
,
Fredriksson
,
R.
,
Bostrom
,
O.
,
Takahashi
,
Y.
,
Akiyama
,
A.
,
Okamoto
,
M.
, and
Kikuchi
,
Y.
,
2010
, “
Development and Validation of Pedestrian Sedan Bucks Using Finite-Element Simulations: A Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Vehicle Automatic Braking on the Kinematics of the Pedestrian Involved in Vehicle Collisions
,”
Int. J. Crashworthiness
,
15
(
5
), pp.
491
503
.
4.
Fredriksson
,
R.
,
Shin
,
J.
, and
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2011
, “
Potential of Pedestrian Protection Systems-A Parameter Study Using Finite Element Models of Pedestrian Dummy and Generic Passenger Vehicles
,”
Traffic Inj. Prev.
,
12
(
4
), pp.
398
411
.
5.
EURO-NCAP
,
2017
, “
Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Protocol Version 8.3
,” EURO-NCAP, Leuven, Belgium, accessed Sept. 1, 2017, https://www.euroncap.com/en/for-engineers/protocols/pedestrian-protection/
6.
Takahashi
,
Y.
,
Suzuki
,
S.
,
Ikeda
,
M.
, and
Gunji
,
Y.
,
2010
, “
Investigation on Pedestrian Loading Mechanisms Using Finite Element Simulations
,” International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact, Zürich, Switzerland, accessed Sept. 19, 2017, http://www.ircobi.org/wordpress/downloads/irc0111/2010/Session3/3-3.pdf
7.
Watanabe
,
R.
,
Katsuhara
,
T.
,
Miyazaki
,
H.
,
Kitagawa
,
Y.
, and
Yasuki
,
T.
,
2012
, “
Research of the Relationship of Pedestrian Injury to Collision Speed, Car-Type, Impact Location and Pedestrian Sizes Using Human FE Model (THUMS Version 4)
,”
Stapp Car Crash J
,
56
, pp.
269
321
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23625564
8.
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2005
, “
Development and Validation of a Finite Element Model of Human Lower Limb: Including Detailed Geometry, Physical Material Properties, and Component Validations for Pedestrian Injuries
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.
9.
Gayzik
,
F. S.
,
Moreno
,
D. P.
,
Geer
,
C. P.
,
Wuertzer
,
S. D.
,
Martin
,
R. S.
, and
Stitzel
,
J. D.
,
2011
, “
Development of a Full Body CAD Dataset for Computational Modeling: A Multi-Modality Approach
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
39
(
10
), pp.
2568
2583
.
10.
Gayzik
,
F. S.
,
Moreno
,
D. P.
,
Danelson
,
K. A.
,
McNally
,
C.
,
Klinich
,
K. D.
, and
Stitzel
,
J. D.
,
2012
, “
External Landmark, Body Surface, and Volume Data of a Mid-Sized Male in Seated and Standing Postures
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
40
(
9
), pp.
2019
2032
.
11.
Beillas
,
P.
, and
Bertet
,
F.
,
2012
, “
Performance of a 50th Percentile Abdominal Model for Impact: Effect of Size and Mass
,”
J. Biomechanics
,
45
(Suppl. 1), p. S83.
12.
DeWit
,
J. A.
, and
Cronin
,
D. S.
,
2012
, “
Cervical Spine Segment Finite Element Model for Traumatic Injury Prediction
,”
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
,
10
, pp.
138
150
.
13.
Yue
,
N.
, and
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2014
, “
A Numerical Investigation on the Variation in Hip Injury Tolerance With Occupant Posture During Frontal Collisions
,”
Traffic Inj. Prev.
,
15
(
5
), pp.
513
522
.
14.
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
Yue
,
N.
, and
Shin
,
J.
,
2013
, “
A Finite Element Model of the Lower Limb for Simulating Automotive Impacts
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
41
(
3
), pp.
513
526
.
15.
Shin
,
J.
, and
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2013
, “
Biomechanical and Injury Response of Human Foot and Ankle Under Complex Loading
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
135
(
10
), p.
101008
.
16.
Shin
,
J.
,
Yue
,
N.
, and
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2012
, “
A Finite Element Model of the Foot and Ankle for Automotive Impact Applications
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
40
(
12
), pp.
2519
2531
.
17.
Mao
,
H.
,
Zhang
,
L.
,
Jiang
,
B.
,
Genthikatti
,
V. V.
,
Jin
,
X.
,
Zhu
,
F.
,
Makwana
,
R.
,
Gill
,
A.
,
Jandir
,
G.
,
Singh
,
A.
, and
Yang
,
K. H.
,
2013
, “
Development of a Finite Element Human Head Model Partially Validated With Thirty Five Experimental Cases
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
135
(
11
), p.
111002
.
18.
Vavalle
,
N. A.
,
Thompson
,
A. B.
,
Hayes
,
A. R.
,
Moreno
,
D. P.
,
Stitzel
,
J. D.
, and
Gayzik
,
F. S.
,
2014
, “
Investigation of the Mass Distribution of a Detailed Seated Male Finite Element Model
,”
J. Appl. Biomech.
,
30
(
3
), pp.
471
476
.
19.
Dibb
,
A. T.
,
Cox
,
C. A.
,
Nightingale
,
R. W.
,
Luck
,
J. F.
,
Cutcliffe
,
H. C.
,
Myers
,
B. S.
,
Arbogast
,
K. B.
,
Seacrist
,
T.
, and
Bass
,
C. R.
,
2013
, “
Importance of Muscle Activations for Biofidelic Pediatric Neck Response in Computational Models
,”
Traffic Inj. Prev.
,
14
(
Suppl. 1
), pp.
S116
S127
.
20.
Teresinski
,
G.
, and
Madro
,
R.
,
2001
, “
Knee Joint Injuries as a Reconstruction Factors in Car-to-Pedestrian Accidents
,”
Forensic Sci. Int.
,
124
(
1
), pp.
74
82
.
21.
Bose
,
D.
,
Bhalla
,
K. S.
,
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
Ivarsson
,
B. J.
,
Crandall
,
J. R.
, and
Hurwitz
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Injury Tolerance and Moment Response of the Knee Joint to Combined Valgus Bending and Shear Loading
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
130
(
3
), p.
031008
.
22.
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
Crandall
,
J. R.
,
Takahashi
,
Y.
,
Okamoto
,
M.
,
Ito
,
O.
, and
Fredriksson
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Analysis of Running Child Pedestrians Impacted by a Vehicle Using Rigid-Body Models and Optimization Techniques
,”
Saf. Sci.
,
48
(
2
), pp.
259
267
.
23.
Rohlmann
,
A.
,
Neller
,
S.
,
Claes
,
L.
,
Bergmann
,
G.
, and
Wilke
,
H. J.
,
2001
, “
Influence of a Follower Load on Intradiscal Pressure and Intersegmental Rotation of the Lumbar Spine
,”
Spine
,
26
(
24
), pp.
E557
E561
.
24.
Putnam
,
J. B.
,
Somers
,
J. T.
, and
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2014
, “
Development, Calibration, and Validation of a Head-Neck Complex of THOR mod Kit Finite Element Model
,”
Traffic Inj. Prev.
,
15
(
8
), pp.
844
854
.
25.
Viano
,
D. C.
,
1989
, “
Biomechanical Responses and Injuries in Blunt Lateral Impact
,”
SAE
Paper No. 892432.
26.
Martin
,
J.-L.
,
Lardy
,
A.
, and
Laumon
,
B.
,
2011
, “
Pedestrian Injury Patterns According to Car and Casualty Characteristics in France
,”
Assoc. Adv. Automot. Med.
,
55
, pp.
137
146
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22105391
27.
Koh
,
S. W.
,
Cavanaugh
,
J.
,
Mason
,
M.
,
Petersen
,
S.
,
Marth
,
D.
,
Rouhana
,
S.
, and
Bolte
,
J. H.
,
2005
, “
Shoulder Injury and Response Due to Lateral Glenohumeral Joint Impact: An Analysis of Combined Data
,”
Stapp Car Crash J.
,
49
, pp.
291
322
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096279
28.
Kerrigan
,
J. R.
,
Crandall
,
J. R.
, and
Deng
,
B.
,
2007
, “
Pedestrian Kinematic Response to Mid-Sized Vehicle Impact
,”
Int. J. Veh. Saf.
,
2
(
3
), pp.
221
240
.
29.
Kothari
,
V. K.
, and
Gangal
,
M. K.
,
1994
, “
Assessment of Frictional Properties of Some Woven Fabrics
,”
Indian J. Fibre Text. Res.
,
19
(3), pp.
151
155
.http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/19305
30.
Kerrigan
,
J. R.
,
Parent
,
D. P.
,
Untaroiu
,
C.
,
Crandall
,
J. R.
, and
Deng
,
B.
,
2009
, “
A New Approach to Multibody Model Development: Pedestrian Lower Extremity
,”
Traffic Inj. Prev.
,
10
(
4
), pp.
386
397
.
31.
Compigne
,
S.
,
Caire
,
Y.
,
Quesnel
,
T.
, and
Verries
,
J. P.
,
2004
, “
Non-Injurious and Injurious Impact Response of the Human Shoulder Three-Dimensional Analysis of Kinematics and Determination of Injury Threshold
,”
Stapp Car Crash J.
,
48
, pp.
89
123
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230263
32.
Bolte
,
J. H. T.
,
Hines
,
M. H.
,
Herriott
,
R. G.
,
McFadden
,
J. D.
, and
Donnelly
,
B. R.
,
2003
, “
Shoulder Impact Response and Injury Due to Lateral and Oblique Loading
,”
Stapp Car Crash J.
,
47
, pp.
35
53
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096243
33.
Untaroiu
,
C.
,
Darvish
,
K.
,
Crandall
,
J.
,
Deng
,
B.
, and
Wang
,
J. T.
,
2005
, “
A Finite Element Model of the Lower Limb for Simulating Pedestrian Impacts
,”
Stapp Car Crash J.
,
49
, pp.
157
181
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096273
34.
Takahashi
,
Y.
,
Kikuchi
,
Y.
,
Konosu
,
A.
, and
Ishikawa
,
H.
,
2000
, “
Development and Validation of the Finite Element Model for the Human Lower Limb of Pedestrians
,”
Stapp Car Crash J.
,
44
, pp.
335
355
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17458735
35.
Untaroiu
,
C.
,
Shin
,
J. S.
,
Yue
,
N.
,
Kim
,
Y.
, and
Eberhardt
,
A. W.
,
2012
, “
A Finite Element Model of the Pelvis and Lower Limb for Automotive Impact Applications
,”
12th International LS-DYNA Users Conference
, Detroit, MI, June 3–5.http://www.dynalook.com/international-conf-2012/simulation03-b.pdf
36.
Putnam
,
J. B.
,
Somers
,
J. T.
,
Wells
,
J. A.
,
Perry
,
C. E.
, and
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2015
, “
Development and Evaluation of a Finite Element Model of the THOR for Occupant Protection of Spaceflight Crewmembers
,”
Accid. Anal. Prev.
,
82
, pp.
244
256
.
37.
Baker
,
W. A.
,
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
Crawford
,
D. M.
, and
Chowdhury
,
M. R.
,
2017
, “
Mechanical Characterization and Finite Element Implementation of the Soft Materials Used in a Novel Anthropometric Test Device for Simulating Underbody Blast Loading
,”
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
,
74
, pp.
358
364
.
38.
Gehre
,
C.
,
Gades
,
H.
, and
Wernicke
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Objective Rating of Signals Using Test and Simulation Responses
,”
ESV Conference
, Stuttgart, Germany, June 15–18.https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjXu6vL6LDWAhWXxIMKHdjMDhgQFggoMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov%2Fpdf%2Fesv%2Fesv21%2F09-0407.pdf&usg=AFQjCNHBWuxte0UQu_5L4O8eK8ofTOAdjg
39.
Sarin
,
H.
,
Kokkolaras
,
M.
,
Hulbert
,
G.
,
Papalambros
,
P.
,
Barbat
,
S.
, and
Yang
,
R. J.
,
2010
, “
Comparing Time Histories for Validation of Simulation Models: Error Measures and Metrics
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control
,
132
(
6
), p.
061401
.
40.
Barbat
,
S.
,
Fu
,
Y.
,
Zhan
,
Z.
,
Yang
,
R.-J.
, and
Gehre
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Objective Rating Metric for Dynamic Systems
,”
23rd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV)
, Seoul, South Korea, May 27–30.
41.
Vavalle
,
N. A.
,
Jelen
,
B. C.
,
Moreno
,
D. P.
,
Stitzel
,
J. D.
, and
Gayzik
,
F. S.
,
2013
, “
An Evaluation of Objective Rating Methods for Full-Body Finite Element Model Comparison to PMHS Tests
,”
Traffic Inj. Prev.
,
14
, pp.
S87
S94
.
42.
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
Shin
,
J.
,
Ivarsson
,
J.
,
Crandall
,
J. R.
,
Subit
,
D.
,
Takahashi
,
Y.
,
Akiyama
,
A.
, and
Kikuchi
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
A Study of the Pedestrian Impact Kinematics Using Finite Element Dummy Models: The Corridors and Dimensional Analysis Scaling of Upper-Body Trajectories
,”
Int. J. Crashworthiness
,
13
(
5
), pp.
469
478
.
43.
Weiss
,
J. A.
, and
Gardiner
,
J. C.
,
2001
, “
Computational Modeling of Ligament Mechanics
,”
Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.
,
29
(
4
), pp.
1
70
.
44.
Meng
,
Y.
,
Pak
,
W.
,
Guleyupoglu
,
B.
,
Koya
,
B.
,
Gayzik
,
F. S.
, and
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2017
, “
A Finite Element Model of a Six-Year-Old Child for Simulating Pedestrian Accidents
,”
Accid. Anal. Prev.
,
98
, pp.
206
213
.
45.
Lu
,
Y. C.
, and
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2014
, “
A Statistical Geometrical Description of the Human Liver for Probabilistic Occupant Models
,”
J. Biomech.
,
47
(
15
), pp.
3681
3688
.
46.
Lu
,
Y. C.
, and
Untaroiu
,
C. D.
,
2013
, “
Statistical Shape Analysis of Clavicular Cortical Bone With Applications to the Development of Mean and Boundary Shape Models
,”
Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.
,
111
(
3
), pp.
613
628
.
You do not currently have access to this content.