A detailed quantification and understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics may improve detection and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and help optimize CSF system-based delivery of CNS therapeutics. This study presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that utilizes a nonuniform moving boundary approach to accurately reproduce the nonuniform distribution of CSF flow along the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) of a single cynomolgus monkey. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol was developed and applied to quantify subject-specific CSF space geometry and flow and define the CFD domain and boundary conditions. An algorithm was implemented to reproduce the axial distribution of unsteady CSF flow by nonuniform deformation of the dura surface. Results showed that maximum difference between the MRI measurements and CFD simulation of CSF flow rates was <3.6%. CSF flow along the entire spine was laminar with a peak Reynolds number of ∼150 and average Womersley number of ∼5.4. Maximum CSF flow rate was present at the C4-C5 vertebral level. Deformation of the dura ranged up to a maximum of 134 μm. Geometric analysis indicated that total spinal CSF space volume was ∼8.7 ml. Average hydraulic diameter, wetted perimeter, and SAS area were 2.9 mm, 37.3 mm and 27.24 mm2, respectively. CSF pulse wave velocity (PWV) along the spine was quantified to be 1.2 m/s.
Nonuniform Moving Boundary Method for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Intrathecal Cerebrospinal Flow Distribution in a Cynomolgus Monkey
Manuscript received January 12, 2017; final manuscript received April 24, 2017; published online June 7, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ching-Long Lin.
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Khani, M., Xing, T., Gibbs, C., Oshinski, J. N., Stewart, G. R., Zeller, J. R., and Martin, B. A. (June 7, 2017). "Nonuniform Moving Boundary Method for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Intrathecal Cerebrospinal Flow Distribution in a Cynomolgus Monkey." ASME. J Biomech Eng. August 2017; 139(8): 081005. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4036608
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