Neural recording and stimulation with high spatial and temporal resolution are highly desirable in the study of neurocommunication and diseases. Planar multiple microelectrode arrays (MEA) or quasi-three-dimensional (3D) MEA with fixed height have been proposed by many researchers and become commercially available. In this paper, we present the design, fabrication, and test of a novel true 3D multiple electrode array for brain slice stimulation and recording. This MEA is composed of 105 microelectrodes with 50 μm diameter and 125 μm center-to-center spacing integrated in a 1.2 × 1.2 mm2 area. This “true” 3D MEA allows us to precisely position the individual electrodes by piezoelectric-based actuators to penetrate the inactive tissue layer and to approach the active neurons so as to optimize the recording and stimulation of electrical field potential. The capability to stimulate nerve fibers and record postsynaptic field potentials was demonstrated in an experiment using mouse brain hippocampus slice.

References

References
1.
Hamill
,
O. P.
,
Marty
,
A.
,
Neher
,
E.
,
Sakmann
,
B.
, and
Sigworth
,
F. J.
,
1981
, “
Improved Patch-Clamp Techniques for High-Resolution Current Recording From Cells and Cell-Free Membrane Patches
,”
Pflügers Arch. Eur. J. physiol.
,
391
(
2
), pp.
85
100
.
2.
Stuart
,
G. J.
,
Dodt
,
H. U.
, and
Sakmann
,
B.
,
1993
, “
Patch-Clamp Recordings From the Soma and Dendrites of Neurons in Brain Slices Using Infrared Video Microscopy
,”
Pflügers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol.
,
423
(
5
), pp.
511
518
.
3.
Thomas
,
C.
,
Springer
,
P.
,
Loeb
,
G.
,
Berwald-Netter
,
Y.
, and
Okun
,
C.
,
1972
, “
A Miniature Microelectrode Array to Monitor the Bioelectric Activity of Cultured Cells
,”
Exp. Cell Res.
,
74
(1), pp.
61
66
.
4.
Gross
,
G.
,
Rieske
,
E.
,
Kreutzberg
,
G.
, and
Meyer
,
A.
,
1977
, “
A New Fixed-Array Multi-Microelectrode System Designed for Long-Term Monitoring of Extracellular Single Unit Neuronal Activity In Vitro
,”
Neurosci. Lett.
,
6
(2–3), pp.
101
106
.
5.
Novak
,
J.
, and
Wheeler
,
B.
,
1988
, “
Multisite Hippocampal Slice Recording and Stimulation Using a 32 Element Microelectrode Array
,”
J. Neurosci. Methods
,
23
(2), pp.
149
159
.
6.
Oka
,
H.
,
Shimono
,
K.
,
Ogawa
,
R.
,
Sugihara
,
H.
, and
Taketani
,
M.
,
1999
, “
A New Planar Multielectrode Array for Extracellualr Recording: Application to Hippocampal Acute Slice
,”
J. Neurosci. Methods
,
93
(1), pp.
61
78
.
7.
Litke
,
A.
,
Bezayiff
,
N.
,
Chichilnisky
,
E.
,
Cunningham
,
W.
,
Dabrowski
,
W.
,
Grillo
,
A.
,
Grivich
,
M.
,
Grybos
,
P.
,
Hottowy
,
P.
,
Kachiguine
,
S.
,
Kalmar
,
R.
,
Mathieson
,
K.
,
Petrusca
,
D.
,
Rahman
,
M.
, and
Sher
,
A.
,
2004
, “
What Does the Eye Tell the Brain?: Development of a System for the Large-Scale Recording of Retina Output Activity
,”
IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.
,
51
(4), pp.
1434
1440
.
8.
James
,
C.
,
Spence
,
A.
,
Dowell-Mesfin
,
M.
,
Hussain
,
R.
,
Smith
,
K.
,
Craighead
,
H.
,
Isaacson
,
M.
,
Shain
,
W.
, and
Turner
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Extracellular Recordings From Patterned Neuronal Networks Using Planar Microelectrode Arrays
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
51
(9), pp.
1640
1648
.
9.
Heuschkel
,
M. O.
,
Wirth
,
C.
,
Steidl
,
E.-M.
, and
Buisson
,
B.
,
2006
, “
Development of 3-D Multi-Electrode Arrays for Use With Acute Tissue Slices
,”
Advances in Network Electrophysiology
, Springer, Boston, MA, pp. 69–111.
10.
Abdoun
,
O.
,
Joucla
,
S.
,
Mazzocco
,
C.
, and
Yvert
,
B.
,
2011
, “
NeuroMap: A Spline-Based Interactive Open-Source Software for Spatiotemporal Mapping of 2D and 3D MEA Data
,”
Front. Neuroinf.
,
4
, p.
119
.
11.
Charvet
,
G.
,
Billoint
,
O.
,
Rousseau
,
L.
, and
Yvert
,
B.
,
2010
, “
BioMEATM : A 256-Channel MEA System With Integrated Electronics
,” 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (
IEMBS
), Lyon, France, Aug. 22–26, pp. 171–174.
12.
Dipalo
,
M.
,
Messina
,
G. C.
,
Amin
,
H.
,
La Rocca
,
R.
,
Shalabaeva
,
V.
,
Simi
,
A.
,
Maccione
,
A.
,
Zilio
,
P.
,
Berdondini
,
L.
, and
De Angelis
,
F.
,
2015
, “
3D Plasmonic Nanoantennas Integrated With MEA Biosensors
,”
Nanoscale
,
7
(
8
), pp.
3703
3711
.
13.
Kusko
,
M.
,
Craciunoiu
,
F.
,
Amuzescu
,
B.
,
Halitzchi
,
F.
,
Selescu
,
T.
,
Radoi
,
A.
,
Popescu
,
M.
,
Simion
,
M.
,
Bragaru
,
A.
, and
Ignat
,
T.
,
2012
, “
Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Low-Impedance 3D Electrode Array System for Neuro-Electrophysiology
,”
Sensors
,
12
(
12
), pp.
16571
16590
.
14.
Ito
,
S.
,
Yeh
,
F.-C.
,
Hiolski
,
E.
,
Rydygier
,
P.
,
Gunning
,
D. E.
,
Hottowy
,
P.
,
Timme
,
N.
,
Litke
,
A. M.
, and
Beggs
,
J. M.
,
2014
, “
Large-Scale, High-Resolution Multielectrode-Array Recording Depicts Functional Network Differences of Cortical and Hippocampal Cultures
,”
PLoS One
,
9
(
8
), p.
e105324
.
15.
Heuschkel
,
M. O.
,
Fejtl
,
M.
,
Raggenbass
,
M.
,
Bertrand
,
D.
, and
Renaud
,
P.
,
2002
, “
A Three-Dimensional Multi-Electrode Array for Multi-Site Stimulation and Recording in Acute Brain Slices
,”
J. Neurosci. Methods
,
114
(2), pp.
135
148
.
16.
Charvet
,
G.
,
Rousseau
,
L.
,
Billoint
,
O.
,
Gharbi
,
S.
,
Rostaing
,
J.-P.
,
Joucla
,
S.
,
Trevisiol
,
M.
,
Bourgerette
,
A.
,
Chauvet
,
P.
,
Moulin
,
C.
, and
Goy
,
F.
,
2010
, “
BioMEA™: A Versatile High-Density 3D Microelectrode Array System Using Integrated Electronics
,”
Biosens. Bioelectron.
,
25
(
8
), pp.
1889
1896
.
17.
Scholvin
,
J.
,
Kinney
,
J. P.
,
Bernstein
,
J. G.
,
Moore-Kochlacs
,
C.
,
Kopell
,
N.
,
Fonstad
,
C. G.
, and
Boyden
,
E. S.
,
2016
, “
Close-Packed Silicon Microelectrodes for Scalable Spatially Oversampled Neural Recording
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
63
(
1
), pp.
120
130
.
18.
Campbell
,
P. K.
,
Jones
,
K. E.
,
Huber
,
R. J.
,
Horch
,
K. W.
, and
Normann
,
R. A.
,
1991
, “
A Silicon-Based Three-Dimensional Neural Interface: Manufacturing Processes for an Intracortical Electrode Array
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
38
(8), pp.
758
767
.
19.
Bai
,
Q.
,
Wise
,
K. D.
, and
Anderson
,
D. J.
,
2000
, “
A High-Yield Microassembly Structure for Three Dimensional Microelectrode Arrays
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
47
(3), pp.
281
289
.
20.
Fofonoff
,
T. A.
,
Martel
,
S. M.
,
Hatsopoulos
,
N. G.
,
Donoghue
,
J. P.
, and
Hunter
,
I. W.
,
2004
, “
Microelectrode Array Fabrication by Electrical Discharge Machining and Chemical Etching
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
51
(6), pp.
890
895
.
21.
Seker
,
E.
,
Berdichevsky
,
Y.
,
Begley
,
M.
,
Reed
,
M.
,
Staley
,
K.
, and
Yarmush
,
M.
,
2010
, “
The Fabrication of Low-Impedance Nanoporous Gold Multiple-Electrode Arrays for Neural Electrophysiology Studies
,”
Nanotechnology
,
21
(
12
), p.
125504
.
22.
Merla
,
C.
,
Ticaud
,
N.
,
Arnaud-Cormos
,
D.
,
Veyret
,
B.
, and
Leveque
,
P.
,
2011
, “
Real-Time RF Exposure Setup Based on a Multiple Electrode Array (MEA) for Electrophysiological Recording of Neuronal Networks
,”
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
,
59
(
3
), pp.
755
762
.
23.
Shulyzki
,
R.
,
Abdelhalim
,
K.
,
Bagheri
,
A.
,
Salam
,
M. T.
,
Florez
,
C. M.
,
Velazquez
,
J. L. P.
,
Carlen
,
P. L.
, and
Genov
,
R.
,
2015
, “
320-Channel Active Probe for High-Resolution Neuromonitoring and Responsive Neurostimulation
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst.
,
9
(
1
), pp.
34
49
.
24.
Jackson
,
A.
, and
Fetz
,
E.
,
2007
, “
Compact Movable Microwire Array for Long-Term Chronic Unit Recording in Cerebra Cortex of Primates
,”
J. Neurophysiol.
,
98
(5), pp.
3109
3118
.
25.
Johnson
,
J.
, and
Welsh
,
J.
,
2003
, “
Independently Moveable Multielectrode Array to Record Multiple Fast Spiking Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex During Cognition
,”
Methods
,
30
(1), pp.
64
78
.
26.
Sato
,
T.
,
Suzukia
,
T.
, and
Mabuchia
,
K.
,
2007
, “
A New Multi-Electrode Array Design for Chronic Neural Recording, With Independent and Automatic Hydraulic Positioning
,”
J. Neurosci. Methods
,
160
(1), pp.
45
51
.
27.
Mathieson
,
K.
,
Kachiguine
,
S.
,
Adams
,
C.
,
Cunningham
,
W.
,
Gunning
,
D.
,
O'Shea
,
V.
,
Smith
,
K. M.
,
Chichilnisky
,
E. J.
,
Litke
,
A. M.
, and
Sher
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Large-Area Microelectrode Arrays for Recording of Neural Signals
,”
IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.
,
51
(5), pp.
2027
2032
.
28.
Fujishiro
,
A.
,
Kaneko
,
H.
,
Kawashima
,
T.
,
Ishida
,
M.
, and
Kawano
,
T.
,
2014
, “
In Vivo Neuronal Action Potential Recordings Via Three-Dimensional Microscale Needle-Electrode Arrays
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
4
, p.
4868
.
You do not currently have access to this content.