This study aimed to experimentally track the tissue-scale strains of the tendon–bone attachment with and without a localized defect. We hypothesized that attachments with a localized defect would develop strain concentrations and would be weaker than intact attachments. Uniaxial tensile tests and digital image correlation were performed on rat infraspinatus tendon-to-bone attachments with defects (defect group) and without defects (intact group). Biomechanical properties were calculated, and tissue-scale strain distributions were quantified for superior and inferior fibrous and calcified regions. At the macroscale, the defect group exhibited reduced stiffness (31.3±3.7 N/mm), reduced ultimate load (24.7±3.8 N), and reduced area under the curve at ultimate stress (3.7±1.5 J/m2) compared to intact attachments (42.4±4.3 N/mm, 39.3±3.7 N, and 5.6±1.4 J/m2, respectively). Transverse strain increased with increasing axial load in the fibrous region of the defect group but did not change for the intact group. Shear strain of the superior fibrous region was significantly higher in the defect group compared to intact group near yield load. This work experimentally identified that attachments may resist failure by distributing strain across the interface and that strain concentrations develop near attachment defects. By establishing the tissue-scale deformation patterns of the attachment, we gained insight into the micromechanical behavior of this interfacial tissue and bolstered our understanding of the deformation mechanisms associated with its ability to resist failure.
Strain Distribution of Intact Rat Rotator Cuff Tendon-to-Bone Attachments and Attachments With Defects
Manuscript received August 14, 2017; final manuscript received September 14, 2017; published online October 16, 2017. Editor: Beth A. Winkelstein.
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Locke, R. C., Peloquin, J. M., Lemmon, E. A., Szostek, A., Elliott, D. M., and Killian, M. L. (October 16, 2017). "Strain Distribution of Intact Rat Rotator Cuff Tendon-to-Bone Attachments and Attachments With Defects." ASME. J Biomech Eng. November 2017; 139(11): 111007. doi: https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4038111
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