In this work, contributing factors for red blood cell (RBC) damage in turbulence are investigated by simulating jet flow experiments. Results show that dissipative eddies comparable or smaller in size to the red blood cells cause hemolysis and that hemolysis corresponds to the number and, more importantly, the surface area of eddies that are associated with Kolmogorov length scale (KLS) smaller than about 10 μm. The size distribution of Kolmogorov scale eddies is used to define a turbulent flow extensive property with eddies serving as a means to assess the turbulence effectiveness in damaging cells, and a new hemolysis model is proposed. This empirical model is in agreement with hemolysis results for well-defined systems that exhibit different exposure times and flow conditions, in Couette flow viscometer, capillary tube, and jet flow experiments.

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