Clinically, spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are radiographically evaluated and diagnosed from plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging. However, it is difficult to conclude that radiographic evaluation of SCI can directly explain the fundamental mechanism of spinal cord damage. The von-Mises stress and maximum principal strain are directly associated with neurological damage in the spinal cord from a biomechanical viewpoint. In this study, the von-Mises stress and maximum principal strain in the spinal cord as well as the cord cross-sectional area (CSA) were analyzed under various magnitudes for contusion, dislocation, and distraction SCI mechanisms, using a finite-element (FE) model of the cervical spine with spinal cord including white matter, gray matter, dura mater with nerve roots, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A regression analysis was performed to find correlation between peak von-Mises stress/peak maximum principal strain at the cross section of the highest reduction in CSA and corresponding reduction in CSA of the cord. Dislocation and contusion showed greater peak stress and strain values in the cord than distraction. The substantial increases in von-Mises stress as well as CSA reduction similar to or more than 30% were produced at a 60% contusion and a 60% dislocation, while the maximum principal strain was gradually increased as injury severity elevated. In addition, the CSA reduction had a strong correlation with peak von-Mises stress/peak maximum principal strain for the three injury mechanisms, which might be fundamental information in elucidating the relationship between radiographic and mechanical parameters related to SCI.
Biomechanical Behaviors in Three Types of Spinal Cord Injury Mechanisms
Manuscript received August 3, 2015; final manuscript received June 1, 2016; published online June 22, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Brian D. Stemper.
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Khuyagbaatar, B., Kim, K., Man Park, W., and Hyuk Kim, Y. (June 22, 2016). "Biomechanical Behaviors in Three Types of Spinal Cord Injury Mechanisms." ASME. J Biomech Eng. August 2016; 138(8): 081003. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4033794
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