Balance-recovery stepping is often necessary for both a human and humanoid robot to avoid a fall by taking a single step or multiple steps after an external perturbation. The determination of where to step to come to a complete stop has been studied, but little is known about the strategy for initiation of forward motion from the static position following such a step. The goal of this study was to examine the human strategy for stepping by moving the back foot forward from a static, double-support position, comparing parameters from normal step length (SL) to those from increasing SLs to the point of step failure, to provide inspiration for a humanoid control strategy. Healthy young adults instrumented with joint reflective markers executed a prescribed-length step from rest while marker positions and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were measured. The participants were scaled to the Gait2354 model in opensim software to calculate body kinematic and joint kinetic parameters, with further post-processing in matlab. With increasing SL, participants reduced both static and push-off back-foot GRF. Body center of mass (CoM) lowered and moved forward, with additional lowering at the longer steps, and followed a path centered within the initial base of support (BoS). Step execution was successful if participants gained enough forward momentum at toe-off to move the instantaneous capture point (ICP) to within the BoS defined by the final position of both feet on the front force plate. All lower extremity joint torques increased with SL except ankle joint. Front knee work increased dramatically with SL, accompanied by decrease in back-ankle work. As SL increased, the human strategy changed, with participants shifting their CoM forward and downward before toe-off, thus gaining forward momentum, while using less propulsive work from the back ankle and engaging the front knee to straighten the body. The results have significance for human motion, suggesting the upper limit of the SL that can be completed with back-ankle push-off before additional knee flexion and torque is needed. For biped control, the results support stability based on capture-point dynamics and suggest strategy for center-of-mass trajectory and distribution of ground force reactions that can be compared with robot controllers for initiation of gait after recovery steps.
Biomechanics of Step Initiation After Balance Recovery With Implications for Humanoid Robot Locomotion
Manuscript received March 9, 2015; final manuscript received December 30, 2015; published online January 29, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Kenneth Fischer.
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Miller Buffinton, C., Buffinton, E. M., Bieryla, K. A., and Pratt, J. E. (January 29, 2016). "Biomechanics of Step Initiation After Balance Recovery With Implications for Humanoid Robot Locomotion." ASME. J Biomech Eng. March 2016; 138(3): 031001. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4032468
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