Activated neutrophils have been reported to affect peripheral resistance, for example, by plugging capillaries or adhering to the microvasculature. In vivo and ex vivo data indicate that activated neutrophils circulating in the blood also influence peripheral resistance. We used viscometry and microvascular mimics for in vitro corroboration. The rheological impact of differentiated neutrophil-like HL-60 promyelocytes (dHL60s) or human neutrophil suspensions stimulated with 10 nM fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP) was quantified using a cone-plate rheometer (450 s−1 shear rate). To evaluate their impact on microscale flow resistance, we used 10-μm Isopore® membranes to model capillaries as well as single 200 × 50 μm microchannels and networks of twenty 20 × 50 μm microfluidic channels to mimic noncapillary microvasculature. Stimulation of dHL60 and neutrophil populations significantly altered their flow behavior as evidenced by their impact on suspension viscosity. Notably, hematocrit abrogated the impact of leukocyte activation on blood cell suspension viscosity. In micropore filters, activated cell suspensions enhanced flow resistance. This effect was further enhanced by the presence of erythrocytes. The resistance of our noncapillary microvascular mimics to flow of activated neutrophil suspensions was significantly increased only with hematocrit. Notably, it was elevated to a higher extent within the micronetwork chambers compared to the single-channel chambers. Collectively, our findings provide supportive evidence that activated neutrophils passing through the microcirculation may alter hemodynamic resistance due to their altered rheology in the noncapillary microvasculature. This effect is another way neutrophil activation due to chronic inflammation may, at least in part, contribute to the elevated hemodynamic resistance associated with cardiovascular diseases (e.g., hypertension and hypercholesterolemia).
In Vitro Evaluation of the Link Between Cell Activation State and Its Rheological Impact on the Microscale Flow of Neutrophil Suspensions
Manuscript received November 17, 2014; final manuscript received June 6, 2015; published online July 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Mohammad Mofrad.
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Akenhead, M. L., Horrall, N. M., Rowe, D., Sethu, P., and Shin, H. Y. (September 1, 2015). "In Vitro Evaluation of the Link Between Cell Activation State and Its Rheological Impact on the Microscale Flow of Neutrophil Suspensions." ASME. J Biomech Eng. September 2015; 137(9): 091003. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4030824
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