Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) develops as a result of traumatic loading that causes tears of the soft tissues in the knee. A modified transection model, where the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and both menisci were transected, was used on skeletally mature Flemish Giant rabbits. Gross morphological assessments, elastic moduli, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) coverage of the menisci were determined to quantify the amount of tissue damage 12 weeks post injury. This study is one of the first to monitor meniscal changes after inducing combined meniscal and ACL transections. A decrease in elastic moduli as well as a decrease in GAG coverage was seen.

References

References
1.
Felson
,
D. T.
,
2004
, “
An Update on the Pathogenesis and Epidemiology of Osteoarthritis
,”
Radiol. Clin. North Am.
,
42
(
1
), pp.
1
9
.10.1016/S0033-8389(03)00161-1
2.
Shrive
,
N. G.
,
O'Connor
,
J. J.
, and
Goodfellow
,
J. W.
,
1978
, “
Load-Bearing in the Knee Joint
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
131
, pp.
279
287
.10.1097/00003086-197803000-00046
3.
McGonagle
,
D.
,
Tan
,
A. L.
,
Carey
,
J.
, and
Benjamin
,
M.
,
2010
, “
The Anatomical Basis for a Novel Classification of Osteoarthritis and Allied Disorders
,”
J. Anat.
,
216
(
3
), pp.
279
291
.10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01186.x
4.
Intema
,
F.
,
Hazewinkel
,
H. A. W.
,
Gouwens
,
D.
,
Bijlsma
,
J. W. J.
,
Weinans
,
H.
,
Lafeber
,
F. P. J. G.
, and
Mastbergen
,
S. C.
,
2010
, “
In Early OA, Thinning of the Subchondral Plate is Directly Related to Cartilage Damage: Results From a Canine ACLT-Meniscectomy Model
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
18
(
5
), pp.
691
698
.10.1016/j.joca.2010.01.004
5.
Sniekers
,
Y. H.
,
Intema
,
F.
,
Lafeber
,
F. P. J. G.
,
van Osch
,
G. J. V. M.
,
van Leeuwen
,
J. P. T. M.
,
Weinans
,
H.
, and
Mastbergen
,
S. C.
,
2008
, “
A Role for Subchondral Bone Changes in the Process of Osteoarthritis; A Micro-CT Study of Two Canine Models
,”
BMC Musculoskeletal Disord.
,
9
, pp.
20
–30.10.1186/1471-2474-9-20
6.
Yoshioka
,
M.
,
Coutts
,
R. D.
,
Amiel
,
D.
, and
Hacker
,
S. A.
,
1996
, “
Characterization of a Model of Osteoarthritis in the Rabbit Knee
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
4
(
2
), pp.
87
98
.10.1016/S1063-4584(05)80318-8
7.
Chang
,
D. G.
,
Iverson
,
E. P.
,
Schinagl
,
R. M.
,
Sonoda
,
M.
,
Amiel
,
D.
,
Coutts
,
R. D.
, and
Sah
,
R. L.
,
1997
, “
Quantitation and Localization of Cartilage Degeneration Following the Induction of Osteoarthritis in the Rabbit Knee
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
5
(
5
), pp.
357
372
.10.1016/S1063-4584(97)80039-8
8.
Hellio Le Graverand
,
M. P.
,
Vignon
,
E.
,
Otterness
,
I. G.
, and
Hart
,
D. A.
,
2001
, “
Early Changes in Lapine Menisci During Osteoarthritis Development: Part I: Cellular and Matrix Alterations
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
9
(
1
), pp.
56
64
.10.1053/joca.2000.0350
9.
Killian
,
M. L.
,
Isaac
,
D. I.
,
Haut
,
R. C.
,
Déjardin
,
L. M.
,
Leetun
,
D.
, and
Donahue
,
T. L. H.
,
2010
, “
Traumatic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear and Its Implications on Meniscal Degradation: A Preliminary Novel Lapine Osteoarthritis Model
,”
J. Surg. Res.
,
164
(
2
), pp.
234
241
.10.1016/j.jss.2009.03.006
10.
Batiste
,
D. L.
,
Kirkley
,
A.
,
Laverty
,
S.
,
Thain
,
L. M. F.
,
Spouge
,
A. R.
, and
Holdsworth
,
D. W.
,
2004
, “
Ex Vivo Characterization of Articular Cartilage and Bone Lesions in a Rabbit ACL Transection Model of Osteoarthritis Using MRI and Micro-CT
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
12
(
12
), pp.
986
996
.10.1016/j.joca.2004.08.010
11.
McDevitt
,
C. A.
, and
Muir
,
H.
,
1976
, “
Biochemical Changes in the Cartilage of the Knee in Experimental and Natural Osteoarthritis in the Dog
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Br.
,
58
(
1
), pp.
94
101
.
12.
Mariscalco
,
M. W.
,
Magnussen
,
R. A.
,
Mehta
,
D.
,
Hewett
,
T. E.
,
Flanigan
,
D. C.
, and
Kaeding
,
C. C.
,
2013
, “
Autograft Versus Nonirradiated Allograft Tissue for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
,
42
, pp.
492
499
.10.1177/0363546513497566
13.
Kessler
,
M. A.
,
Behrend
,
H.
,
Henz
,
S.
,
Stutz
,
G.
,
Rukavina
,
A.
, and
Kuster
,
M. S.
,
2008
, “
Function, Osteoarthritis and Activity After ACL-Rupture: 11 Years Follow-Up Results of Conservative Versus Reconstructive Treatment
,”
Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol., Arthroscopy
,
16
(
5
), pp.
442
448
.10.1007/s00167-008-0498-x
14.
Oiestad
,
B. E.
,
Holm
,
I.
,
Engebretsen
,
L.
, and
Risberg
,
M. A.
,
2011
, “
The Association Between Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis and Knee Symptoms, Function and Quality of Life 10–15 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
,”
Br. J. Sports Med.
,
45
(
7
), pp.
583
588
.10.1136/bjsm.2010.073130
15.
Asano
,
H.
,
Muneta
,
T.
,
Ikeda
,
H.
,
Yagishita
,
K.
,
Kurihara
,
Y.
, and
Sekiya
,
I.
,
2004
, “
Arthroscopic Evaluation of the Articular Cartilage After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Short-Term Prospective Study of 105 Patients
,”
Arthroscopy
,
20
(
5
), pp.
474
481
.10.1016/j.arthro.2004.03.006
16.
von Porat
,
A.
,
Roos
,
E. M.
, and
Roos
,
H.
,
2004
, “
High Prevalence of Osteoarthritis 14 Years After an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear in Male Soccer Players: A Study of Radiographic and Patient Relevant Outcomes
,”
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
,
63
(
3
), pp.
269
273
.10.1136/ard.2003.008136
17.
McDaniel
,
W. J.
, and
Dameron
,
T. B.
,
1980
, “
Untreated Ruptures of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. A Follow-Up Study
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
,
62
(
5
), pp.
696
705
.
18.
Fairbank
,
T. J.
,
1948
, “
Knee Joint Changes After Meniscectomy
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Br.
,
30B
(
4
), pp.
664
670
.
19.
Jackson
,
J. P.
,
1968
, “
Degenerative Changes in the Knee After Meniscectomy
,”
Br. Med. J.
,
2
(
5604
), pp.
525
527
.10.1136/bmj.2.5604.525
20.
Tapper
,
E. M.
, and
Hoover
,
N. W.
,
1969
, “
Late Results After Meniscectomy
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
,
51
(
3
), pp.
517
526
.
21.
Dandy
,
D. J.
, and
Jackson
,
R. W.
,
1975
, “
The Diagnosis of Problems After Meniscectomy
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Br.
,
57
(
3
), pp.
349
352
.
22.
Fithian
,
D. C.
,
Kelly
,
M. A.
, and
Mow
,
V. C.
,
1990
, “
Material Properties and Structure-Function Relationships in the Menisci
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
252
, pp.
19
31
.10.1097/00003086-199003000-00004
23.
Sanchez-Adams
,
J.
,
Willard
, V
. P.
, and
Athanasiou
,
K. A.
,
2011
, “
Regional Variation in the Mechanical Role of Knee Meniscus Glycosaminoglycans
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
111
(
6
), pp.
1590
1596
.10.1152/japplphysiol.00848.2011
24.
Bellabarba
,
C.
,
Bush-Joseph
,
C. A.
, and
Bach
,
B. R.
,
1997
, “
Patterns of Meniscal Injury in the Anterior Cruciate-Deficient Knee: A Review of the Literature
,”
Am. J. Orthop.
,
26
(
1
), pp.
18
23
.
25.
Wickiewicz
,
T. L.
,
1990
, “
Meniscal Injuries in the Cruciate-Deficient Knee
,”
Clin. Sports Med.
,
9
(
3
), pp.
681
694
.
26.
Smith
,
J. P.
, and
Barrett
,
G. R.
,
2001
, “
Medial and Lateral Meniscal Tear Patterns in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees. A Prospective Analysis of 575 Tears
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
,
29
(
4
), pp.
415
419
.
27.
McDevitt
,
C.
,
Gilbertson
,
E.
, and
Muir
,
H.
,
1977
, “
An Experimental Model of Osteoarthritis; Early Morphological and Biochemical Changes
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Br.
,
59
(
1
), pp.
24
35
.
28.
Manicourt
,
D. H.
, and
Pita
,
J. C.
,
1988
, “
Progressive Depletion of Hyaluronic Acid in Early Experimental Osteoarthritis in Dogs
,”
Arthritis Rheum.
,
31
(
4
), pp.
538
544
.10.1002/art.1780310411
29.
Smith
,
G. N.
,
Mickler
,
E. A.
,
Albrecht
,
M. E.
,
Myers
,
S. L.
, and
Brandt
,
K. D.
,
2002
, “
Severity of Medial Meniscus Damage in the Canine Knee After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
10
(
4
), pp.
321
326
.10.1053/joca.2002.0520
30.
Sandy
,
J. D.
,
Adams
,
M. E.
,
Billingham
,
M. E.
,
Plaas
,
A.
, and
Muir
,
H.
,
1984
, “
in vivo and in vitro Stimulation of Chondrocyte Biosynthetic Activity in Early Experimental Osteoarthritis
,”
Arthritis Rheum.
,
27
(
4
), pp.
388
397
.10.1002/art.1780270405
31.
Matyas
,
J. R.
,
Atley
,
L.
,
Ionescu
,
M.
,
Eyre
,
D. R.
, and
Poole
,
A. R.
,
2004
, “
Analysis of Cartilage Biomarkers in the Early Phases of Canine Experimental Osteoarthritis
,”
Arthritis Rheum.
,
50
(
2
), pp.
543
552
.10.1002/art.20027
32.
Adams
,
M. E.
,
Billingham
,
M. E.
, and
Muir
,
H.
,
1983
, “
The Glycosaminoglycans in Menisci in Experimental and Natural Osteoarthritis
,”
Arthritis Rheum.
,
26
(
1
), pp.
69
76
.10.1002/art.1780260111
33.
Wachsmuth
,
L.
,
Keiffer
,
R.
,
Juretschke
,
H.-P.
,
Raiss
,
R. X.
,
Kimmig
,
N.
, and
Lindhorst
,
E.
,
2003
, “
In vivo Contrast-Enhanced Micro MR-Imaging of Experimental Osteoarthritis in the Rabbit Knee Joint at 7.1T1
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
11
(
12
), pp.
891
902
.10.1016/j.joca.2003.08.008
34.
Beveridge
,
J. E.
,
Heard
,
B. J.
,
Shrive
,
N. G.
, and
Frank
,
C. B.
,
2013
, “
Tibiofemoral Centroid Velocity Correlates More Consistently With Cartilage Damage Than Does Contact Path Length in Two Ovine Models of Stifle Injury
,”
J. Orthop. Res.
,
31
,
1745
1756
.10.1002/jor.22429
35.
Lindhorst
,
E.
,
Wachsmuth
,
L.
,
Kimmig
,
N.
,
Raiss
,
R.
,
Aigner
,
T.
,
Atley
,
L.
, and
Eyre
,
D.
,
2005
, “
Increase in Degraded Collagen Type II in Synovial Fluid Early in the Rabbit Meniscectomy Model of Osteoarthritis
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
13
(
2
), pp.
139
145
.10.1016/j.joca.2004.10.017
36.
LeRoux
,
M. A.
,
Arokoski
,
J.
,
Vail
,
T. P.
,
Guilak
,
F.
,
Hyttinen
,
M. M.
,
Kiviranta
, I
.
, and
Setton
,
L. A.
,
2000
, “
Simultaneous Changes in the Mechanical Properties, Quantitative Collagen Organization, and Proteoglycan Concentration of Articular Cartilage Following Canine Meniscectomy
,”
J. Orthop. Res.
,
18
(
3
), pp.
383
392
.10.1002/jor.1100180309
37.
Messner
,
K.
,
Fahlgren
,
A.
,
Persliden
,
J.
, and
Andersson
,
B. M.
,
2001
, “
Radiographic Joint Space Narrowing and Histologic Changes in a Rabbit Meniscectomy Model of Early Knee Osteoarthrosis
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
,
29
(
2
), pp.
151
160
.
38.
Hayami
,
T.
,
Pickarski
,
M.
,
Zhuo
,
Y.
,
Wesolowski
,
G. A.
,
Rodan
,
G. A.
, and
Duong
,
L. T.
,
2006
, “
Characterization of Articular Cartilage and Subchondral Bone Changes in the Rat Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection and Meniscectomized Models of Osteoarthritis
,”
Bone
,
38
(
2
), pp.
234
243
.10.1016/j.bone.2005.08.007
39.
Pickarski
,
M.
,
Hayami
,
T.
,
Zhuo
,
Y.
, and
Duong
,
L. T.
,
2011
, “
Molecular Changes in Articular Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in the Rat Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection and Meniscectomized Models of Osteoarthritis
,”
BMC Musculoskeletal Disord.
,
12
(
1
), p.
197
.10.1186/1471-2474-12-197
40.
De Smet
,
A. A.
, and
Graf
,
B. K.
,
1994
, “
Meniscal Tears Missed on MR Imaging: Relationship to Meniscal Tear Patterns and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears
,”
Am. J. Roentgenol.
,
162
(
4
), pp.
905
911
.10.2214/ajr.162.4.8141016
41.
Cerabona
,
F.
,
Sherman
,
M. F.
,
Bonamo
,
J. R.
, and
Sklar
,
J.
,
1988
, “
Patterns of Meniscal Injury With Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
,
16
(
6
), pp.
603
609
.10.1177/036354658801600609
42.
Pauli
,
C.
,
Grogan
,
S. P.
,
Patil
,
S.
,
Otsuki
,
S.
,
Hasegawa
,
A.
,
Koziol
,
J.
,
Lotz
,
M. K.
, and
D'Lima
,
D. D.
,
2011
, “
Macroscopic and Histopathologic Analysis of Human Knee Menisci in Aging and Osteoarthritis
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
19
(
9
), pp.
1132
1141
.10.1016/j.joca.2011.05.008
43.
Chia
,
H. N.
, and
Hull
,
M. L.
,
2008
, “
Compressive Moduli of the Human Medial Meniscus in the Axial and Radial Directions at Equilibrium and at a Physiological Strain Rate
,”
J. Orthop. Res.
,
26
(
7
), pp.
951
956
.10.1002/jor.20573
44.
Sweigart
,
M. A.
,
Zhu
,
C. F.
,
Burt
,
D. M.
,
DeHoll
,
P. D.
,
Agrawal
,
C. M.
,
Clanton
,
T. O.
, and
Athanasiou
,
K. A.
,
2004
, “
Intraspecies and Interspecies Comparison of the Compressive Properties of the Medial Meniscus
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
32
(
11
), pp.
1569
1579
.10.1114/B:ABME.0000049040.70767.5c
45.
Killian
,
M. L.
,
Lepinski
,
N. M.
,
Haut
,
R. C.
, and
Haut Donahue
,
T. L.
,
2010
, “
Regional and Zonal Histo-Morphological Characteristics of the Lapine Menisci
,”
Anat. Rec.
,
293
(
12
), pp.
1991
2000
.10.1002/ar.21296
46.
Zhu
,
W.
,
Chern
,
K. Y.
, and
Mow
,
V. C.
,
1994
, “
Anisotropic Viscoelastic Shear Properties of Bovine Meniscus
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
306
, pp.
34
45
.
47.
Mow
,
V. C.
,
Arnoczky
,
S. P.
, and
Jackson
,
D. W.
,
1992
,
Knee Meniscus: Basic and Clinical Foundations
,
Raven Press
,
New York
.
48.
Li
,
G.
,
Moses
,
J. M.
,
Papannagari
,
R.
,
Pathare
,
N. P.
,
DeFrate
,
L. E.
, and
Gill
,
T. J.
,
2006
, “
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency Alters the in vivo Motion of the Tibiofemoral Cartilage Contact Points in Both the Anteroposterior and Mediolateral Directions
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
,
88
(
8
), pp.
1826
1834
.10.2106/JBJS.E.00539
49.
Rosenberg
,
L.
,
1971
, “
Chemical Basis for the Histological Use of Safranin O in the Study of Articular Cartilage
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
,
53
(
1
), pp.
69
82
.
50.
Chan
,
W. P.
,
Lang
,
P.
,
Stevens
,
M. P.
,
Sack
,
K.
,
Majumdar
,
S.
,
Stoller
,
D. W.
,
Basch
,
C.
, and
Genant
,
H. K.
,
1991
, “
Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Comparison of Radiography, CT, and MR Imaging to Assess Extent and Severity
,”
Am. J. Roentgenol.
,
157
(
4
), pp.
799
806
.10.2214/ajr.157.4.1892040
51.
Greis
,
P. E.
,
Bardana
,
D. D.
,
Holmstrom
,
M. C.
, and
Burks
,
R. T.
,
2002
, “
Meniscal Injury: I. Basic Science and Evaluation
,”
J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg.
,
10
(
3
), pp.
168
176
.
52.
Bursac
,
P.
,
Arnoczky
,
S.
, and
York
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Dynamic Compressive Behavior of Human Meniscus Correlates With Its Extra-Cellular Matrix Composition
,”
Biorheology
,
46
(
3
), pp.
227
237
.
53.
Sun
,
Y.
,
Mauerhan
,
D. R.
,
Kneisl
,
J. S.
,
James Norton
,
H.
,
Zinchenko
,
N.
,
Ingram
,
J.
,
Hanley
,
E. N.
, and
Gruber
,
H. E.
,
2012
, “
Histological Examination of Collagen and Proteoglycan Changes in Osteoarthritic Menisci
,”
Open Rheum. J.
,
6
(
6
), pp.
24
32
.10.2174/1874312901206010024
54.
Treppo
,
S.
,
Koepp
,
H.
,
Quan
,
E. C.
,
Cole
,
A. A.
,
Kuettner
,
K. E.
, and
Grodzinsky
,
A. J.
,
2000
, “
Comparison of Biomechanical and Biochemical Properties of Cartilage From Human Knee and Ankle Pairs
,”
J. Orthop. Res.
,
18
(
5
), pp.
739
748
.10.1002/jor.1100180510
55.
Bansal
,
P. N.
,
Joshi
,
N. S.
,
Entezari
,
V.
,
Grinstaff
,
M. W.
, and
Snyder
,
B. D.
,
2010
, “
Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography Can Predict the Glycosaminoglycan Content and Biomechanical Properties of Articular Cartilage
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
18
(
2
), pp.
184
191
.10.1016/j.joca.2009.09.003
56.
Meister
,
K.
,
Indelicato
,
P. A.
,
Spanier
,
S.
,
Franklin
,
J.
, and
Batts
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Histology of the Torn Meniscus: A Comparison of Histologic Differences in Meniscal Tissue Between Tears in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Intact and Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
,
32
(
6
), pp.
1479
1483
.10.1177/0363546503262182
57.
Allen
,
C. R.
,
Wong
,
E. K.
,
Livesay
,
G. A.
,
Sakane
,
M.
,
Fu
,
F. H.
, and
Woo
,
S. L.
,
2000
, “
Importance of the Medial Meniscus in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knee
,”
J. Orthop. Res.
,
18
(
1
), pp.
109
115
.10.1002/jor.1100180116
58.
Shoemaker
,
S. C.
, and
Markolf
,
K. L.
,
1986
, “
The Role of the Meniscus in the Anterior-Posterior Stability of the Loaded Anterior Cruciate-Deficient Knee. Effects of Partial Versus Total Excision
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
,
68
(
1
), pp.
71
79
.
59.
Thompson
,
W. O.
, and
Fu
,
F. H.
,
1993
, “
The Meniscus in the Cruciate-Deficient Knee
,”
Clin. Sports Med.
,
12
(
4
), pp.
771
796
.
60.
Warren
,
R. F.
, and
Levy
,
I. M.
,
1983
, “
Meniscal Lesions Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
172
, pp.
32
37
.10.1097/00003086-198301000-00008
You do not currently have access to this content.