This work describes the kinematic laws that govern the transmission of soft tissue artifact errors to kinematic variables in the analysis of human movements. Artifacts are described as relative translations and rotations of the marker cluster over the bone, and a set of explicit expressions is defined to account for the effect of that relative motion on different representations of rotations: the rotation around the screw axis, or rotation vector, and three Euler angle sequences (XY′Z, YX′Y″, ZX′Y″). Although the error transmission is nonlinear in all cases, the effect of artifacts is greater on Euler sequences than on the rotation vector. Specifically, there are crosstalk effects in Euler sequences that amplify the errors near singular configurations. This fact is an additional source of variability in studies that describe artifacts by comparing the Euler angles obtained from skin markers, with the angles of an artifact-free gold standard. The transmission of errors to rotation vector coordinates is less variable or dependent on the type of motion. This model has been tested in an experiment with a deformable mechanical model with a spherical joint.

References

References
1.
Leardini
,
A.
,
Chiari
,
L.
,
Croce
,
U. D.
, and
Cappozzo
,
A.
,
2005
, “
Human Movement Analysis Using Stereophotogrammetry. Part 3. Soft Tissue Artifact Assessment and Compensation
,”
Gait Posture
,
21
(
2
), pp.
212
225
.10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.05.002
2.
Peters
,
A.
,
Galna
,
B.
,
Sangeux
,
M.
,
Morris
,
M.
, and
Baker
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Quantification of Soft Tissue Artifact in Lower Limb Human Motion Analysis: A Systematic Review
,”
Gait Posture
,
31
(
1
), pp.
1
8
.10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.09.004
3.
Reinschmidt
,
C.
,
van den Bogert
,
A.
,
Lundberg
,
A.
,
Nigg
,
B.
,
Murphy
,
N.
,
Stacoff
,
A.
, and
Stano
,
A.
,
1997
, “
Tibiofemoral and Tibiocalcaneal Motion During Walking: External vs. Skeletal Markers
,”
Gait Posture
,
6
(
2
), pp.
98
109
.10.1016/S0966-6362(97)01110-7
4.
Lucchetti
,
L.
,
Cappozzo
,
A.
,
Cappello
,
A.
, and
Croce
,
U. D.
,
1998
, “
Skin Movement Artefact Assessment and Compensation in the Estimation of Knee-Joint Kinematics
,”
J. Biomech.
,
31
(
11
), pp.
977
984
.10.1016/S0021-9290(98)00083-9
5.
Benoit
,
D. L.
,
Ramsey
,
D. K.
,
Lamontagne
,
M.
,
Xu
,
L.
,
Wretenberg
,
P.
, and
Renström
,
P.
,
2006
, “
Effect of Skin Movement Artifact on Knee Kinematics During Gait and Cutting Motions Measured In Vivo
,”
Gait Posture
,
24
(
2
), pp.
152
164
.10.1016/j.gaitpost.2005.04.012
6.
Nester
,
C.
,
Jones
,
R. K.
,
Liu
,
A.
,
Howard
,
D.
,
Lundberg
,
A.
,
Arndt
,
A.
,
Lundgren
,
P.
,
Stacoff
,
A.
, and
Wolf
,
P.
,
2007
, “
Foot Kinematics During Walking Measured Using Bone and Surface Mounted Markers
,”
J. Biomech.
,
40
(
15
), pp.
3412
3423
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.05.019
7.
Andersen
,
M. S.
,
Benoit
,
D. L.
,
Damsgaard
,
M.
,
Ramsey
,
D. K.
, and
Rasmussen
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Do Kinematic Models Reduce the Effects of Soft Tissue Artefacts in Skin Marker-Based Motion Analysis? An In Vivo Study of Knee Kinematics
,”
J. Biomech.
,
43
(
2
), pp.
268
273
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.08.034
8.
Page
,
Á.
,
de Rosario
,
H.
,
Mata
,
V.
, and
Atienza
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Experimental Analysis of Rigid Body Motion. A Vector Method to Determine Finite and Infinitesimal Displacements From Point Coordinates
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
131
(
3
), p.
031005
.10.1115/1.3066468
9.
Diebel
,
J.
,
2006
,
Representing Attitude: Euler Angles, Unit Quaternions, and Rotation Vectors
, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
10.
Woltring
,
H. J.
,
1994
, “
3-D Attitude Representation of Human Joints: A Standardization Proposal
,”
J. Biomech.
,
27
(
12
), pp.
1399
1414
.10.1016/0021-9290(94)90191-0
11.
Choi
,
A. R.
,
Rim
,
Y. H.
,
Kim
,
Y. S.
, and
Mun
,
J. H.
,
2005
, “
A Position Based Kinematic Method for the Analysis of Human Gait
J. Mech. Sci. Technol.
,
19
(
10
), pp.
1919
1931
.10.1007/BF02984271
12.
Angeles
,
J.
,
2007
,
Fundamentals of Robotic Mechanical Systems: Theory, Methods, and Algorithms
,
Springer
,
New York
.
13.
Grood
,
E. S.
, and
Suntay
,
W. J.
,
1983
, “
A Joint Coordinate System for the Clinical Description of Three-Dimensional Motions: Application to the Knee
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
105
(
2
), pp.
136
144
.10.1115/1.3138397
14.
Wu
,
G.
,
Siegler
,
S.
,
Allard
,
P.
,
Kirtley
,
C.
,
Leardini
,
A.
,
Rosenbaum
,
D.
,
Whittle
,
M.
,
D'Lima
,
D. D.
,
Cristofolini
,
L.
,
Witte
,
H.
,
Schmid
,
O.
, and
Stokes
,
I.
,
2002
, “
ISB Recommendation on Definitions of Joint Coordinate System of Various Joints for the Reporting of Human Joint Motion—Part I: Ankle, Hip, and Spine
,”
J. Biomech.
,
35
(
4
), pp.
543
548
.10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00222-6
15.
Wu
,
G.
,
van der Helm
,
F. C. T.
(DirkJan), Veeger
,
H. E. J.
,
Makhsous
,
M.
,
Van Roy
,
P.
,
Anglin
,
C.
,
Nagels
,
J.
,
Karduna
,
A. R.
,
McQuade
,
K.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Werner
,
F. W.
, and
Buchholz
,
B.
,
2005
, “
ISB Recommendation on Definitions of Joint Coordinate Systems of Various Joints for the Reporting of Human Joint Motion—Part II: Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist and Hand
,”
J. Biomech.
,
38
(
5
), pp.
981
992
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.05.042
16.
Rosario
,
H.
,
de Page
,
A.
,
Besa
,
A.
,
Mata
,
V.
, and
Conejero
,
E.
,
2012
, “
Kinematic Description of Soft Tissue Artifacts: Quantifying Rigid Versus Deformation Components and Their Relation With Bone Motion
,”
Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.
,
50
(
11
), pp.
1173
1181
.10.1007/s11517-012-0978-5
17.
Page
,
A.
,
Candelas
,
P.
, and
Belmar
,
F.
,
2006
, “
On the Use of Local Fitting Techniques for the Analysis of Physical Dynamic Systems
”,
Eur. J. Phys.
,
27
(
2
), p.
273
.10.1088/0143-0807/27/2/010
18.
Page
,
A.
,
Rosario
,
H. D.
,
Mata
,
V.
,
Hoyos
,
J. V.
, and
Porcar
,
R.
,
2006
, “
Effect of Marker Cluster Design on the Accuracy of Human Movement Analysis Using Stereophotogrammetry
,”
Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.
,
44
(
12
), pp.
1113
1119
.10.1007/s11517-006-0124-3
19.
Woltring
,
H. J.
,
Long
,
K.
,
Osterbauer
,
P. J.
, and
Fuhr
,
A. W.
,
1994
, “
Instantaneous Helical Axis Estimation From 3-D Video Data in Neck Kinematics for Whiplash Diagnostics
,”
J. Biomech.
,
27
(
12
), pp.
1415
1432
.10.1016/0021-9290(94)90192-9
20.
Camomilla
,
V.
,
Cereatti
,
A.
,
Vannozzi
,
G.
, and
Cappozzo
,
A.
,
2006
, “
An Optimized Protocol for Hip Joint Centre Determination Using the Functional Method
,”
J. Biomech.
,
39
(
6
), pp.
1096
1106
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.02.008
21.
MacWilliams
,
B. A.
,
2008
, “
A Comparison of Four Functional Methods to Determine Centers and Axes of Rotations
,”
Gait Posture
,
28
(
4
), pp.
673
679
.10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.05.010
22.
Della Croce
,
U.
,
Leardini
,
A.
,
Chiari
,
L.
, and
Cappozzo
,
A.
,
2005
, “
Human Movement Analysis Using Stereophotogrammetry: Part 4: Assessment of Anatomical Landmark Misplacement and Its Effects on Joint Kinematics
,”
Gait Posture
,
21
(
2
), pp.
226
237
.10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.05.003
You do not currently have access to this content.