Approximately 7.5 × 106 patients in the US currently suffer from end-stage heart failure. The FDA has recently approved the designations of the Thoratec HeartMate II ventricular assist device (VAD) for both bridge-to-transplant and destination therapy (DT) due to its mechanical durability and improved hemodynamics. However, incidence of pump thrombosis and thromboembolic events remains high, and the life-long complex pharmacological regimens are mandatory in its VAD recipients. We have previously successfully applied our device thrombogenicity emulation (DTE) methodology for optimizing device thromboresistance to the Micromed Debakey VAD, and demonstrated that optimizing device features implicated in exposing blood to elevated shear stresses and exposure times significantly reduces shear-induced platelet activation and significantly improves the device thromboresistance. In the present study, we compared the thrombogenicity of the FDA-approved HeartMate II VAD with the DTE-optimized Debakey VAD (now labeled HeartAssist 5). With quantitative probability density functions of the stress accumulation along large number of platelet trajectories within each device which were extracted from numerical flow simulations in each device, and through measurements of platelet activation rates in recirculation flow loops, we specifically show that: (a) Platelets flowing through the HeartAssist 5 are exposed to significantly lower stress accumulation that lead to platelet activation than the HeartMate II, especially at the impeller-shroud gap regions (b) Thrombus formation patterns observed in the HeartMate II are absent in the HeartAssist 5 (c) Platelet activation rates (PAR) measured in vitro with the VADs mounted in recirculation flow-loops show a 2.5-fold significantly higher PAR value for the HeartMate II. This head to head thrombogenic performance comparative study of the two VADs, one optimized with the DTE methodology and one FDA-approved, demonstrates the efficacy of the DTE methodology for drastically reducing the device thrombogenic potential, validating the need for a robust in silico/in vitro optimization methodology for improving cardiovascular devices thromboresistance.
Thromboresistance Comparison of the HeartMate II Ventricular Assist Device With the Device Thrombogenicity Emulation-Optimized HeartAssist 5 VAD
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Manuscript received September 8, 2013; final manuscript received December 10, 2013; accepted manuscript posted December 16, 2013; published online February 5, 2014. Editor: Victor H. Barocas.
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Chiu, W., Girdhar, G., Xenos, M., Alemu, Y., Soares, J. S., Einav, S., Slepian, M., and Bluestein, D. (February 5, 2014). "Thromboresistance Comparison of the HeartMate II Ventricular Assist Device With the Device Thrombogenicity Emulation-Optimized HeartAssist 5 VAD." ASME. J Biomech Eng. February 2014; 136(2): 021014. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4026254
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