Cardiac mechanical contraction is triggered by electrical activation via an intracellular calcium-dependent process known as excitation–contraction coupling. Dysregulation of cardiac myocyte intracellular calcium handling is a common feature of heart failure. At the organ scale, electrical dyssynchrony leads to mechanical alterations and exacerbates pump dysfunction in heart failure. A reverse coupling between cardiac mechanics and electrophysiology is also well established. It is commonly referred as cardiac mechanoelectric feedback and thought to be an important contributor to the increased risk of arrhythmia during pathological conditions that alter regional cardiac wall mechanics, including heart failure. At the cellular scale, most investigations of myocyte mechanoelectric feedback have focused on the roles of stretch-activated ion channels, though mechanisms that are independent of ionic currents have also been described. Here we review excitation–contraction coupling and mechanoelectric feedback at the cellular and organ scales, and we identify the need for new multicellular tissue-scale model systems and experiments that can help us to obtain a better understanding of how interactions between electrophysiological and mechanical processes at the cell scale affect ventricular electromechanical interactions at the organ scale in the normal and diseased heart.

References

References
1.
Prinzen
,
F. W.
, and
Peschar
,
M.
,
2002
, “
Relation Between the Pacing Induced Sequence of Activation and Left Ventricular Pump Function in Animals
,”
Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol.
,
25
(
4 Pt 1
), pp.
484
498
.10.1046/j.1460-9592.2002.00484.x
2.
Quinn
,
T. A.
,
Bayliss
,
R. A.
, and
Kohl
,
P.
,
2011
, “
Mechano-electric Feedback in the Heart: Effects on Heart Rate and Rhythm
,”
Heart Rate and Rhythm
,
O. N.
Tripathi
,
U.
Ravens
, and
M. C.
Sanguinetti
, Eds.,
Springer
,
Berlin
, pp.
133
151
.
3.
Leclercq
,
C.
, and
Kass
,
D. A.
,
2002
, “
Retiming the Failing Heart: Principles and Current Clinical Status of Cardiac Resynchronization
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
39
(
2
), pp.
194
201
.10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01747-8
4.
Pogwizd
,
S. M.
, and
Bers
,
D. M.
,
2002
, “
Calcium Cycling in Heart Failure: The Arrhythmia Connection
,”
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
,
13
(
1
), pp.
88
91
.10.1046/j.1540-8167.2002.00088.x
5.
Prinzen
,
F. W.
,
Augustijn
,
C. H.
,
Allessie
M. a.
,
Arts
,
T.
,
Delhaas
,
T.
, and
Reneman
,
R. S.
,
1992
, “
The Time Sequence of Electrical and Mechanical Activation During Spontaneous Beating and Ectopic Stimulation
,”
Eur. Heart J.
,
13
(
4
), pp.
535
543
.
6.
Hoffman
,
B.
,
Cranefield
,
P.
,
Stuckey
,
J.
,
Amer
,
N.
,
Cappelletti
,
R.
, and
Domingo
,
R.
,
1959
, “
Direct Measurement of Conduction Velocity in In Situ Specialized Conducting System of Mammalian Heart
,”
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.
,
102
, pp.
55
57
.10.3181/00379727-102-25141
7.
Myerburg
,
R. J.
,
Nilsson
,
K.
, and
Gelband
,
H.
,
1972
, “
Physiology of Canine Intraventricular Conduction and Endocardial Excitation
,”
Circ. Res.
,
30
(
2
), pp.
217
243
.10.1161/01.RES.30.2.217
8.
Scher
,
A. M.
,
Young
,
A. C.
,
Malmgren
,
A. L.
, and
Erickson
,
R. V.
,
1955
, “
Activation of the Interventricular Septum
,”
Circ. Res.
,
3
(
1
), pp.
56
64
.10.1161/01.RES.3.1.56
9.
Sodi-Pallares
,
D.
,
Bisteni
,
A.
,
Medrano
,
G.
, and
Cisneros
,
F.
,
1955
, “
The Activation of the Free Left Ventricular Wall in the Dog's Heart; In Normal Conditions and in Left Bundle Branch Block
,”
Am. Heart J.
,
49
(
4
), pp.
587
602
.10.1016/0002-8703(55)90077-6
10.
Durrer
,
D.
,
Van Dam
,
R. T.
,
Freud
,
G. E.
,
Janse
,
M. J.
,
Meijler
,
F. L.
, and
Arzbaecher
,
R. C.
,
1970
, “
Total Excitation of the Isolated Human Heart
,”
Circulation
,
41
(
6
), pp.
899
912
.10.1161/01.CIR.41.6.899
11.
Badke
,
F.
,
Boinay
,
P.
, and
Covell
,
J. W.
,
1980
, “
Effects of Ventricular Pacing on Regional Left Ventricular Performance in the Dog
,”
Am. J. Physiol.
,
238
, pp.
H858
867
.
12.
Gurev
,
V.
,
Constantino
,
J.
,
Rice
,
J. J.
, and
Trayanova
,
N. A.
,
2010
, “
Distribution of Electromechanical Delay in the Heart: Insights From a Three-Dimensional Electromechanical Model
,”
Biophys. J.
,
99
(
3
), pp.
745
754
.10.1016/j.bpj.2010.05.028
13.
Ashikaga
,
H.
,
Coppola
,
B. A.
,
Hopenfeld
,
B.
,
Leifer
,
E. S.
,
McVeigh
,
E. R.
, and
Omens
,
J. H.
,
2007
, “
Transmural Dispersion of Myofiber Mechanics: Implications for Electrical Heterogeneity in vivo
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
49
(
8
), pp.
909
916
.10.1016/j.jacc.2006.07.074
14.
Usyk
,
T.
, and
McCulloch
,
A. D.
,
2003
, “
Relationship Between Regional Shortening and Asynchronous Electrical Activation in a Three-Dimensional Model of Ventricular Electromechanics
,”
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
,
14
(
10 Suppl
), pp.
S196
S202
.10.1046/j.1540.8167.90311.x
15.
Russell
,
K.
,
Smiseth
O. a.
,
Gjesdal
,
O.
,
Qvigstad
,
E.
,
Norseng
,
P. A.
,
Sjaastad
,
I.
,
Opdahl
,
A.
,
Skulstad
,
H.
,
Edvardsen
,
T.
, and
Remme
,
E. W.
,
2011
, “
Mechanism of Prolonged Electromechanical Delay in Late Activated Myocardium During Left Bundle Branch Block
,”
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
,
301
(
6
), pp.
H2334
H243
.10.1152/ajpheart.00644.2011
16.
Wyndham
,
C. R.
,
Smith
,
T.
,
Meeran
,
M. K.
,
Mammana
,
R.
,
Levitsky
,
S.
, and
Rosen
,
K. M.
,
1980
, “
Epicardial Activation in Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block
,”
Circulation
,
61
(
4
), pp.
696
703
.10.1161/01.CIR.61.4.696
17.
Grines
,
C. L.
,
Bashore
,
T. M.
,
Boudoulas
,
H.
,
Olson
,
S.
,
Shafer
,
P.
, and
Wooley
,
C. F.
,
1989
, “
Functional Abnormalities in Isolated Left Bundle Branch Block. The Effect of Interventricular Asynchrony
,”
Circulation
,
79
(
4
), pp.
845
853
.10.1161/01.CIR.79.4.845
18.
Uusimaa
,
P.
,
Risteli
,
J.
,
Niemelä
,
M.
,
Lumme
,
J.
,
Ikäheimo
,
M.
,
Jounela
,
A.
, and
Peukhurinen
,
K.
,
1997
, “
Collagen Scar Formation After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Relationships to Infarct Size, Left Ventricular Function, and Coronary Artery Patency
,”
Circulation
,
96
, pp.
2565
2572
.10.1161/01.CIR.96.8.2565
19.
van Oosterhout
,
M. F. M.
,
Prinzen
,
F. W.
,
Arts
,
T.
,
Schreuder
,
J. J.
,
Vanagt
,
W. Y. R.
,
Cleutjens
,
J. P. M.
,
Reneman
,
R. S.
, and
Ward
,
Y. R.
,
1998
, “
Asynchronous Electrical Activation Induces Asymmetrical Hypertrophy of the Left Ventricular Wall
,”
Circulation
,
98
(
6
), pp.
588
595
.10.1161/01.CIR.98.6.588
20.
Vassallo
,
J. a.
,
Cassidy
,
D. M.
,
Marchlinski
,
F. E.
,
Buxton
,
a. E.
,
Waxman
,
H. L.
,
Doherty
,
J. U.
, and
Josephson
,
M. E.
,
1984
, “
Endocardial Activation of Left Bundle Branch Block
,”
Circulation
,
69
(
5
), pp.
914
923
.10.1161/01.CIR.69.5.914
21.
Prinzen
,
F.
,
Cheriex
,
E.
,
Delhaas
,
T.
,
van Oosterhout
,
M.
,
Arts
,
T.
,
Wellens
,
H.
, and
Reneman
,
R.
,
1995
, “
Asymmetric Thickness of the Left Ventricular Wall Resulting From Asynchronous Electric Activation: A Study in Dogs With Ventricular Pacing and in Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block
,”
Am. Heart J.
,
130
(
5
), pp.
1045
1053
.10.1016/0002-8703(95)90207-4
22.
Sweeney
,
M. O.
, and
Prinzen
,
F. W.
,
2006
, “
A New Paradigm for Physiologic Ventricular Pacing
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
47
(
2
), pp.
282
288
.10.1016/j.jacc.2005.09.029
23.
Delhaas
,
T.
,
Arts
,
T.
,
Prinzen
,
F.
, and
Reneman
,
R.
,
1993
, “
Relation Between Regional Electrical Activation Time and Subepicardial Fiber Strain in the Canine Left Ventricle
,”
Pflügers Arch.
,
423
(
1–2
), pp.
78
87
.10.1007/BF00374964
24.
Prinzen
,
F. W.
,
Augustijn
,
C. H.
,
Arts
,
T.
,
Allessie
,
M. a.
, and
Reneman
,
R. S.
,
1990
, “
Redistribution of Myocardial Fiber Strain and Blood Flow by Asynchronous Activation
,”
Am. J. Physiol.
,
259
(
2 Pt 2
), pp.
H300
H308
.
25.
Wyman
,
B. T.
,
Hunter
,
W. C.
,
Prinzen
,
F. W.
,
Faris
,
O. P.
, and
McVeigh
,
E. R.
,
2002
, “
Effects of Single- and Biventricular Pacing on Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Ventricular Contraction
,”
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
,
282
(
1
), pp.
H372
H379
.
26.
Prinzen
,
F.
, and
Hunter
,
W.
,
1999
, “
Mapping of Regional Myocardial Strain and Work During Ventricular Pacing: Experimental Study Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tagging
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
33
(
6
), pp.
1735
1742
.10.1016/S0735-1097(99)00068-6
27.
Ghio
,
S.
,
Constantin
,
C.
,
Klersy
,
C.
,
Serio
,
A.
,
Fontana
,
A.
,
Campana
,
C.
, and
Tavazzi
,
L.
,
2004
, “
Interventricular and Intraventricular Dyssynchrony Are Common in Heart Failure Patients, Regardless of QRS Duration
,”
Eur. Heart J.
,
25
(
7
), pp.
571
578
.10.1016/j.ehj.2003.09.030
28.
Maron
,
B. J.
,
Doerer
,
J. J.
,
Haas
,
T. S.
,
Estes
,
N. A. M.
, and
Link
,
M. S.
,
2006
, “
Historical Observation on Commotio Cordis
,”
Heart Rhythm
,
3
(
5
), pp.
605
606
.10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.12.011
29.
Kohl
,
P.
,
Hunter
,
P.
, and
Noble
,
D.
,
1999
, “
Stretch-Induced Changes in Heart Rate and Rhythm: Clinical Observations, Experiments and Mathematical Models
,”
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
,
71
, pp.
91
138
.10.1016/S0079-6107(98)00038-8
30.
Maron
,
B. J.
,
Haas
,
T. S.
,
Ahluwalia
,
A.
,
Garberich
,
R. F.
,
Estes
,
N. A. M.
, and
Link
,
M. S.
,
2013
, “
Increasing Survival Rate From Commotio Cordis
,”
Heart Rhythm
,
10
(
2
), pp.
219
223
.10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.10.034
31.
Madias
,
C.
,
Maron
,
B. J.
,
Alsheikh-ali
,
A. A.
,
Estes
,
N. A. M.
, and
Link
,
M. S.
,
2007
, “
Commotio Cordis
,”
Indian Pacing Electrophysiol. J.
,
7
(
4
), pp.
235
245
.
32.
Trayanova
N. a.
,
Constantino
,
J.
, and
Gurev
,
V.
,
2010
, “
Models of Stretch-Activated Ventricular Arrhythmias
,”
J. Electrocardiol.
,
43
(
6
), pp.
479
485
.10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.05.014
33.
Hansen
,
D. E.
,
Craig
,
C. S.
, and
Hondeghem
,
L. M.
,
1990
, “
Stretch-Induced Arrhythmias in the Isolated Canine Ventricle. Evidence for the Importance of Mechanoelectrical Feedback
,”
Circulation
,
81
(
3
), pp.
1094
1105
.10.1161/01.CIR.81.3.1094
34.
Wang
,
Z.
,
Taylor
,
L. K.
,
Denney
,
W. D.
, and
Hansen
,
D. E.
,
1994
, “
Initiation of Ventricular Extrasystoles by Myocardial Stretch in Chronically Dilated and Failing Canine Left Ventricle
,”
Circulation
,
90
(
4
), pp.
2022
2031
.10.1161/01.CIR.90.4.2022
35.
Berdowski
,
J.
,
Tijssen
,
J. G. P.
, and
Koster
,
R. W.
,
2010
, “
Chest Compressions Cause Recurrence of Ventricular Fibrillation After the First Successful Conversion by Defibrillation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
,”
Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol.
,
3
(
1
), pp.
72
78
.10.1161/CIRCEP.109.902114
36.
Janse
,
M. J.
,
Coronel
,
R.
,
Wilms-Schopman
,
F. J.
, and
de Groot
,
J. R.
,
2003
, “
Mechanical Effects on Arrhythmogenesis: From Pipette to Patient
,”
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
,
82
(
1–3
), pp.
187
195
.10.1016/S0079-6107(03)00015-4
37.
Pellis
,
T.
,
Kette
,
F.
,
Lovisa
,
D.
,
Franceschino
,
E.
,
Magagnin
,
L.
,
Mercante
,
W. P.
, and
Kohl
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Utility of Pre-cordial Thump for Treatment of Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Prospective Study
,”
Resuscitation
,
80
(
1
), pp.
17
23
.10.1016/j.resuscitation.2008.10.018
38.
Pellis
,
T.
, and
Kohl
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Extracorporeal Cardiac Mechanical Stimulation: Precordial Thump and Precordial Percussion
,”
Br. Med. Bull.
,
93
, pp.
161
177
.10.1093/bmb/ldp045
39.
Bainbridge
,
F. A.
,
1915
, “
The Influence of Venous Filling Upon the Rate of the Heart
,”
J. Physiol.
,
50
(
2
), pp.
65
84
.
40.
Crystal
,
G. J.
, and
Salem
,
M. R.
,
2012
, “
The Bainbridge and the ‘Reverse’ Bainbridge Reflexes: History, Physiology, and Clinical Relevance
,”
Anesth. Analg.
,
114
(
3
), pp.
520
532
.10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182312e21
41.
Cui
,
J.
,
Gao
,
Z.
,
Blaha
C. a.
,
Herr
,
M. D.
,
Mast
,
J. L.
, and
Sinoway
,
L. I.
,
2013
, “
Distension of Central Great Vein Decreases Sympathetic Outflow in Humans
,”
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
,
305
(
3
), pp.
H378
H385
.10.1152/ajpheart.00019.2013
42.
Lab
,
M. J.
,
1982
, “
Contraction-Excitation Feedback in Myocardium. Physiological Basis and Clinical Relevance
,”
Circ. Res.
,
50
(
6
), pp.
757
766
.10.1161/01.RES.50.6.757
43.
Marrus
,
S. B.
, and
Nerbonne
,
J. M.
,
2008
, “
Mechanisms Linking Short- and Long-Term Electrical Remodeling in the Heart… Is It a Stretch?
,”
Channels
,
2
(
2
), pp.
117
124
.10.4161/chan.2.2.6104
44.
Eckardt
,
L.
,
Kirchhof
,
P.
,
Monnig
,
G.
,
Breithardt
,
G.
,
Borggrefe
,
M.
, and
Haverkamp
,
W.
,
2000
, “
Modification of Stretch-Induced Shortening of Repolarization by Streptomycin in the Isolated Rabbit Heart
,”
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
,
36
(
6
), pp.
1
17
.
45.
Franz
,
M. R.
, and
Bode
,
F.
,
2003
, “
Mechano-electrical Feedback Underlying Arrhythmias: The Atrial Fibrillation Case
,”
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
,
82
(
1–3
), pp.
163
174
.10.1016/S0079-6107(03)00013-0
46.
Kiseleva
,
I.
,
Kamkin
,
A.
,
Wagner
,
K.-D.
,
Theres
,
H.
,
Ladhoff
,
A.
,
Scholz
,
H.
,
Günther
,
J.
, and
Lab
,
M. J.
,
2000
, “
Mechanoelectric Feedback After Left Ventricular Infarction in Rats
,”
Cardiovasc. Res.
,
45
(
2
), pp.
370
378
.10.1016/S0008-6363(99)00361-2
47.
McNary
,
T. G.
,
Sohn
,
K.
,
Taccardi
,
B.
, and
Sachse
,
F. B.
,
2008
, “
Experimental and Computational Studies of Strain-Conduction Velocity Relationships in Cardiac Tissue
,”
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
,
97
(
2–3
), pp.
383
400
.10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2008.02.023
48.
Sung
,
D.
,
Mills
,
R. W.
,
Schettler
,
J.
,
Narayan
,
S. M.
,
Omens
,
J. H.
, and
McCulloch
,
A. D.
,
2003
, “
Ventricular Filling Slows Epicardial Conduction and Increases Action Potential Duration in an Optical Mapping Study of the Isolated Rabbit Heart
,”
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
,
14
(
7
), pp.
739
749
.10.1046/j.1540-8167.2003.03072.x
49.
Mills
,
R. W.
,
Narayan
,
S. M.
, and
McCulloch
,
A. D.
,
2008
, “
Mechanisms of Conduction Slowing During Myocardial Stretch by Ventricular Volume Loading in the Rabbit
,”
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
,
295
(
3
), pp.
H1270
H1278
.10.1152/ajpheart.00350.2008
50.
Satoh
,
T.
, and
Zipes
,
D. P.
,
1996
, “
Unequal Atrial Stretch in Dogs Increases Dispersion of Refractoriness Conducive to Developing Atrial Fibrillation
,”
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
,
7
(
9
), pp.
833
842
.10.1111/j.1540-8167.1996.tb00596.x
51.
Mills
,
R. W.
,
Wright
,
A. T.
,
Narayan
,
S. M.
, and
McCulloch
,
A. D.
,
2011
, “
The Effects of Wall Stretch on Ventricular Conduction and Refractoriness in the Whole Heart
,”
Cardiac Mechano-Electric Coupling and Arrhythmias
,
P.
Kohl
,
F.
Sachs
, and
M. R.
Franz
, Eds.,
Oxford University Press
,
Oxford
, pp.
180
186
.
52.
López-López
,
J.
,
Shacklock
,
P.
,
Balke
,
C.
, and
Wier
,
W.
,
1995
, “
Local Calcium Transients Triggered by Single L-Type Calcium Channel Currents in Cardiac Cells
,”
Science
,
268
(
5213
), pp.
1042
1045
.10.1126/science.7754383
53.
Bers
,
D.
,
2002
, “
Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling
,”
Nature
,
415
(
6868
), pp.
198
205
.10.1038/415198a
54.
Endo
,
M.
,
Tanaka
,
M.
, and
Ogawa
,
Y.
,
1970
, “
Calcium Induced Release of Calcium From the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Skinned Skeletal Muscle Fibres
,”
Nature
,
228
(
5266
), pp.
34
36
.10.1038/228034a0
55.
Cordeiro
,
J. M.
,
Greene
,
L.
,
Heilmann
,
C.
,
Antzelevitch
,
D.
, and
Antzelevitch
,
C.
,
2004
, “
Transmural Heterogeneity of Calcium Activity and Mechanical Function in the Canine Left Ventricle
,”
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
,
286
(
4
), pp.
H1471
H1479
.10.1152/ajpheart.00748.2003
56.
Bers
,
D. M.
,
2008
, “
Calcium Cycling and Signaling in Cardiac Myocytes
,”
Annu. Rev. Physiol.
,
70
, pp.
23
49
.10.1146/annurev.physiol.70.113006.100455
57.
Holroydes
,
M. J.
,
Robertson
,
S. P.
,
Johnsong
,
J. D.
,
Solarosgl
,
R. J.
,
James
,
D.
,
Solaro
,
R. J.
, and
Potter
,
J. D.
,
1980
, “
The Calcium and Magnesium Binding Sites on Cardiac Troponin and Their Role in the Regulation of Myofibrillar Adenosine Triphosphatase
,”
J. Biol. Chem.
,
255
(
24
), pp.
11688
11693
.
58.
Kobayashi
,
T.
, and
Solaro
,
R. J.
,
2005
, “
Calcium, Thin Filaments, and the Integrative Biology of Cardiac Contractility
,”
Annu. Rev. Physiol.
,
67
, pp.
39
67
.10.1146/annurev.physiol.67.040403.114025
59.
Gordon
,
A. M.
,
Homsher
,
E.
, and
Regnier
,
M.
,
2000
, “
Regulation of Contraction in Striated Muscle
,”
Physiol. Rev.
,
80
(
2
), pp.
853
924
.
60.
de Tombe
,
P. P.
,
Mateja
,
R. D.
,
Tachampa
,
K.
,
Ait Mou
,
Y.
,
Farman
,
G. P.
, and
Irving
,
T. C.
,
2010
, “
Myofilament Length Dependent Activation.
,”
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
,
48
(
5
), pp.
851
858
.10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.12.017
61.
Campbell
,
S. G.
,
Lionetti
,
F. V.
,
Campbell
,
K. S.
, and
McCulloch
,
A. D.
,
2010
, “
Coupling of Adjacent Tropomyosins Enhances Cross-Bridge-Mediated Cooperative Activation in a Markov Model of the Cardiac Thin Filament
,”
Biophys. J.
,
98
(
10
), pp.
2254
2264
.10.1016/j.bpj.2010.02.010
62.
Hofmann
,
P. A.
, and
Fuchs
,
F.
,
1988
, “
Bound Calcium and Force Development in Skinned Cardiac Muscle Bundles: Effect of Sarcomere Length
,”
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
,
20
(
8
), pp.
667
677
.10.1016/S0022-2828(88)80012-9
63.
Allen
,
D. G.
,
Kurihara
,
S.
, and
Allen
,
B. Y. D. G.
,
1982
, “
The Effects of Muscle Length on Intracellular Calcium Transients in Mammalian Cardiac Muscle
,”
J. Physiol.
,
327
, pp.
79
94
.
64.
Bett
,
G. C.
, and
Sachse
,
F. B.
,
1997
, “
Cardiac Mechanosensitivity and Stretch-Activated Ion Channels
,”
Trends Cardiovasc. Med.
,
7
(
1
), pp.
4
8
.10.1016/S1050-1738(96)00119-3
65.
Bowman
,
C. L.
,
Gottlieb
,
P. a.
,
Suchyna
,
T. M.
,
Murphy
,
Y. K.
, and
Sachs
,
F.
,
2007
, “
Mechanosensitive Ion Channels and the Peptide Inhibitor GsMTx-4: History, Properties, Mechanisms and Pharmacology
,”
Toxicon
,
49
(
2
), pp.
249
270
.10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.09.030
66.
Dyachenko
,
V.
,
Husse
,
B.
,
Rueckschloss
,
U.
, and
Isenberg
,
G.
,
2009
, “
Mechanical Deformation of Ventricular Myocytes Modulates Both TRPC6 and Kir2.3 Channels
,”
Cell Calcium
,
45
(
1
), pp.
38
54
.10.1016/j.ceca.2008.06.003
67.
Hu
,
H.
, and
Sachs
,
F.
,
1997
, “
Stretch-Activated Ion Channels in the Heart
,”
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
,
29
, pp.
1511
1523
.10.1006/jmcc.1997.0392
68.
Spassova
,
M. a.
,
Hewavitharana
,
T.
,
Xu
,
W.
,
Soboloff
,
J.
, and
Gill
,
D. L.
,
2006
, “
A Common Mechanism Underlies Stretch Activation and Receptor Activation of TRPC6 Channels
,”
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
,
103
(
44
), pp.
16586
16591
.10.1073/pnas.0606894103
69.
Suchyna
,
T. M.
,
Johnson
,
J. H.
,
Hamer
,
K.
,
Leykam
,
J. F.
,
Gage
,
D. a.
,
Clemo
,
H. F.
,
Baumgarten
,
C. M.
, and
Sachs
,
F.
,
2000
, “
Identification of a Peptide Toxin From Grammostola Spatulata Spider Venom That Blocks Cation-Selective Stretch-Activated Channels
,”
J. Gen. Physiol.
,
115
(
5
), pp.
583
598
.10.1085/jgp.115.5.583
70.
Eder
,
P.
, and
Molkentin
,
J. D.
,
2011
, “
TRPC Channels As Effectors of Cardiac Hypertrophy
,”
Circ. Res.
,
108
(
2
), pp.
265
272
.10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.225888
71.
Friedrich
,
O.
,
Wagner
,
S.
,
Battle
,
A. R.
,
Schürmann
,
S.
, and
Martinac
,
B.
,
2012
, “
Mechano-regulation of the Beating Heart at the Cellular Level—Mechanosensitive Channels in Normal and Diseased Heart
,”
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
,
110
(
2–3
), pp.
226
238
.10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2012.08.009
72.
Quinn
,
T. A.
, and
Kohl
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Mechano-sensitivity of Cardiac Pacemaker Function: Pathophysiological Relevance, Experimental Implications, and Conceptual Integration With Other Mechanisms of Rhythmicity
,”
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
,
110
(
2–3
), pp.
257
268
.10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2012.08.008
73.
Healy
,
S. N.
, and
McCulloch
,
A. D.
,
2005
, “
An Ionic Model of Stretch-Activated and Stretch-Modulated Currents in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes
,”
Europace
,
7
, pp.
S128
S134
.10.1016/j.eupc.2005.03.019
74.
Kong
,
C.-R.
,
Bursac
,
N.
, and
Tung
,
L.
,
2005
, “
Mechanoelectrical Excitation by Fluid Jets in Monolayers of Cultured Cardiac Myocytes
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
98
(
6
), pp.
2328
2336
.10.1152/japplphysiol.01084.2004
75.
Weise
,
L. D.
, and
Panfilov
,
A. V.
,
2013
, “
A Discrete Electromechanical Model for Human Cardiac Tissue: Effects of Stretch-Activated Currents and Stretch Conditions on Restitution Properties and Spiral Wave Dynamics
,”
PLoS One
,
8
(
3
), p.
e59317
.10.1371/journal.pone.0059317
76.
Clapham
,
D. E.
,
Shrier
,
A.
, and
DeHaan
,
R. L.
,
1980
, “
Junctional Resistance and Action Potential Delay Between Embryonic Heart Cell Aggregates
,”
J. Gen. Physiol.
,
75
(
6
), pp.
633
654
.10.1085/jgp.75.6.633
77.
Elfgang
,
C.
,
Eckert
,
R.
,
Lichtenberg-Fraté
,
H.
,
Butterweck
,
A.
,
Traub
,
O.
,
Klein
,
R. a.
,
Hülser
,
D. F.
, and
Willecke
,
K.
,
1995
, “
Specific Permeability and Selective Formation of Gap Junction Channels in Connexin-Transfected HeLa Cells
,”
J. Cell Biol.
,
129
(
3
), pp.
805
817
.10.1083/jcb.129.3.805
78.
Gourdie
,
R. G.
,
1995
, “
A Map of the Heart: Gap Junctions, Connexin Diversity and Retroviral Studies of Conduction Myocyte Lineage
,”
Clin. Sci.
,
88
, pp.
257
262
.
79.
Severs
,
N. J.
,
Bruce
,
A. F.
,
Dupont
,
E.
, and
Rothery
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Remodelling of Gap Junctions and Connexin Expression in Diseased Myocardium
,”
Cardiovasc. Res.
,
80
(
1
), pp.
9
19
.10.1093/cvr/cvn133
80.
Weingart
,
R.
,
1986
, “
Electrical Properties of the Nexal Membrane Studied in Rat Ventricular Cell Pairs
,”
J. Physiol.
,
370
, pp.
267
284
.
81.
Fontes
,
M. S. C.
,
van Veen
,
T. a., B.
,
de Bakker
,
J. M. T.
, and
van Rijen
,
H. V. M.
,
2011
, “
Functional Consequences of Abnormal Cx43 Expression in the Heart
,”
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
,
1818
(
8
), pp.
2020
202
.10.1016/j.bbamem.2011.07.039
82.
Saffitz
,
J. E.
,
Laing
,
J. G.
, and
Yamada
,
K. a.
,
2000
, “
Connexin Expression and Turnover: Implications for Cardiac Excitability
,”
Circ. Res.
,
86
, pp.
723
728
.10.1161/01.RES.86.7.723
83.
Saffitz
,
J. E.
,
2005
, “
Dependence of Electrical Coupling on Mechanical Coupling in Cardiac Myocytes: Insights Gained From Cardiomyopathies Caused by Defects in Cell-Cell Connections
,”
Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.
,
1047
, pp.
336
344
.10.1196/annals.1341.030
84.
Cherian
,
P. P.
,
Siller-Jackson
,
A. J.
,
Gu
,
S.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Bonewald
,
L. F.
,
Sprague
,
E.
, and
Jiang
,
J. X.
,
2005
, “
Mechanical Strain Opens Connexin 43 Hemichannels in Osteocytes: A Novel Mechanism for the Release of Prostaglandin
,”
Mol. Biol. Cell
,
16
(
7
), pp.
3100
3106
.10.1091/mbc.E04-10-0912
85.
Gopalan
,
S. M.
,
Flaim
,
C.
,
Bhatia
,
S. N.
,
Hoshijima
,
M.
,
Knoell
,
R.
,
Chien
,
K. R.
,
Omens
,
J. H.
, and
McCulloch
,
A. D.
,
2003
, “
Anisotropic Stretch-Induced Hypertrophy in Neonatal Ventricular Myocytes Micropatterned on Deformable Elastomers
,”
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
,
81
(
5
), pp.
578
587
.10.1002/bit.10506
86.
Zhuang
,
J.
,
Yamada
,
K. a.
,
Saffitz
,
J. E.
, and
Kléber
,
A. G.
,
2000
, “
Pulsatile Stretch Remodels Cell-to-Cell Communication in Cultured Myocytes
,”
Circ. Res.
,
87
(
4
), pp.
316
322
.10.1161/01.RES.87.4.316
87.
Kontogeorgis
,
A.
,
Kaba
,
R. a.
,
Kang
,
E.
,
Feig
,
J. E.
,
Gupta
,
P. P.
,
Ponzio
,
M.
,
Liu
,
F.
,
Rindler
,
M. J.
,
Wit
,
A. L.
,
Fisher
,
E. a.
,
Peters
,
N. S.
, and
Gutstein
,
D. E.
,
2008
, “
Short-Term Pacing in the Mouse Alters Cardiac Expression of Connexin43
,”
BioMed Cent. Physiol.
,
8
, p.
8
.
88.
Poelzing
,
S.
, and
Rosenbaum
,
D. S.
,
2004
, “
Altered Connexin43 Expression Produces Arrhythmia Substrate in Heart Failure
,”
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
,
287
(
4
), pp.
H1762
H1770
.10.1152/ajpheart.00346.2004
89.
Rhett
,
J. M.
,
Veeraraghavan
,
R.
,
Poelzing
,
S.
, and
Gourdie
,
R. G.
,
2013
, “
The Perinexus: Sign-Post on the Path to a New Model of Cardiac Conduction?
,”
Trends Cardiovasc. Med.
,
23
(
6
), pp.
222
228
.10.1016/j.tcm.2012.12.005
90.
Hand
,
P. E.
, and
Peskin
,
C. S.
,
2010
, “
Homogenization of an Electrophysiological Model for a Strand of Cardiac Myocytes With Gap-Junctional and Electric-Field Coupling
,”
Bull. Math. Biol.
,
72
(
6
), pp.
1408
1424
.10.1007/s11538-009-9499-2
91.
Lin
,
J.
, and
Keener
,
J. P.
,
2013
, “
Ephaptic Coupling in Cardiac Myocytes
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
60
(
2
), pp.
576
582
.10.1109/TBME.2012.2226720
92.
Roberts
,
S. F.
,
Stinstra
,
J. G.
, and
Henriquez
,
C. S.
,
2008
, “
Effect of Nonuniform Interstitial Space Properties on Impulse Propagation: A Discrete Multidomain Model
,”
Biophys. J.
,
95
(
8
), pp.
3724
3737
.10.1529/biophysj.108.137349
93.
Kohl
,
P.
,
Cooper
,
P. J.
, and
Holloway
,
H.
,
2003
, “
Effects of Acute Ventricular Volume Manipulation on In Situ Cardiomyocyte Cell Membrane Configuration
,”
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
,
82
(
1–3
), pp.
221
227
.10.1016/S0079-6107(03)00024-5
94.
McNary
,
T. G.
,
Spitzer
,
K. W.
,
Holloway
,
H.
,
Bridge
,
J. H. B.
,
Kohl
,
P.
, and
Sachse
,
F. B.
,
2012
, “
Mechanical Modulation of the Transverse Tubular System of Ventricular Cardiomyocytes
,”
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
,
110
(
2–3
), pp.
218
225
.10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2012.07.010
95.
Suchyna
,
T. M.
,
Tape
,
S. E.
,
Koeppe
,
R. E.
,
Andersen
,
O. S.
,
Sachs
,
F.
, and
Gottlieb
,
P. A.
,
2004
, “
Bilayer-Dependent Inhibition of Mechanosensitive Channels by Neuroactive Peptide Enantiomers
,”
Nature
,
430
(
6996
), pp.
235
240
.10.1038/nature02743
96.
Maleckar
,
M. M.
,
Greenstein
,
J. L.
,
Giles
,
W. R.
, and
Trayanova
,
N. A.
,
2009
, “
Electrotonic Coupling Between Human Atrial Myocytes and Fibroblasts Alters Myocyte Excitability and Repolarization
,”
Biophys. J.
,
97
(
8
), pp.
2179
2190
.10.1016/j.bpj.2009.07.054
97.
Miragoli
,
M.
,
Gaudesius
,
G.
, and
Rohr
,
S.
,
2006
, “
Electrotonic Modulation of Cardiac Impulse Conduction by Myofibroblasts
,”
Circ. Res.
,
98
(
6
), pp.
801
810
.10.1161/01.RES.0000214537.44195.a3
98.
Rook
,
M.
,
Jongsma
,
H.
, and
Jonge
,
B.
,
1989
, “
Single Channel Currents of Homo- and Heterologous Gap Junctions Between Cardiac Fibroblasts and Myocytes
,”
Pflügers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol.
,
414
(
1
), pp.
95
98
.10.1007/BF00585633
99.
Rudy
,
Y.
,
2005
, “
Electrotonic Cell-Cell Interactions in Cardiac Tissue: Effects on Action Potential Propagation and Repolarization
,”
Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.
,
1047
, pp.
308
313
.10.1196/annals.1341.027
100.
Kohl
,
P.
,
Kamkin
,
A.
,
Kiseleva
,
I. S.
, and
Streubel
,
T.
,
1992
, “
Mechanosensitive Cells in the Atrium of Frog Heart
,”
Exp. Physiol.
,
77
(
1
), pp.
213
216
.
101.
Kohl
,
P.
,
Kamkin
,
A.
,
Kiseleva
,
I. S.
, and
Noble
,
D.
,
1994
, “
Mechanosensitive Fibroblasts in the Sino-Atrial Node Region of Rat Heart: Interaction With Cardiomyocytes and Possible Role
,”
Exp. Physiol.
,
79
(
6
), pp.
943
956
.
102.
Haraguchi
,
Y.
,
Shimizu
,
T.
,
Yamato
,
M.
, and
Okano
,
T.
,
2010
, “
Electrical Interaction Between Cardiomyocyte Sheets Separated by Non-cardiomyocyte Sheets in Heterogeneous Tissues
,”
Tissue Eng.
,
4
, pp.
291
299
.
103.
Rohr
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Myofibroblasts in Diseased Hearts: New Players in Cardiac Arrhythmias?
,”
Heart Rhythm
,
6
(
6
), pp.
848
856
.10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.02.038
104.
Vasquez
,
C.
,
Benamer
,
N.
, and
Morley
,
G. E.
,
2011
, “
The Cardiac Fibroblast: Functional and Electrophysiological Considerations in Healthy and Diseased Hearts
,”
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
,
57
(
4
), pp.
380
388
.10.1097/FJC.0b013e31820cda19
105.
Thompson
,
S. a.
,
Copeland
,
C. R.
,
Reich
,
D. H.
, and
Tung
,
L.
,
2011
, “
Mechanical Coupling Between Myofibroblasts and Cardiomyocytes Slows Electric Conduction in Fibrotic Cell Monolayers
,”
Circulation
,
123
(
19
), pp.
2083
2093
.10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.015057
106.
Suchyna
,
T. M.
, and
Sachs
,
F.
,
2007
, “
Mechanosensitive Channel Properties and Membrane Mechanics in Mouse Dystrophic Myotubes
,”
J. Physiol.
,
581
(
1
), pp.
369
387
.10.1113/jphysiol.2006.125021
107.
Sokabe
,
M.
,
Sachs
,
F.
, and
Jing
,
Z. Q.
,
1991
, “
Quantitative Video Microscopy of Patch Clamped Membranes Stress, Strain, Capacitance, and Stretch Channel Activation
,”
Biophys. J.
,
59
(
3
), pp.
722
728
.10.1016/S0006-3495(91)82285-8
108.
Morris
,
C.
, and
Homann
,
U.
,
2001
, “
Cell Surface Area Regulation and Membrane Tension
,”
J. Membr. Biol.
,
179
, pp.
79
102
.
109.
Gómez
,
A. M.
,
Guatimosim
,
S.
,
Dilly
,
K. W.
,
Vassort
,
G.
,
Lederer
,
W. J.
, and
Gómez
,
A. M.
,
2001
, “
Heart Failure After Myocardial Infarction: Altered Excitation-Contraction Coupling
,”
Circulation
,
104
(
6
), pp.
688
693
.10.1161/hc3201.092285
110.
Isenberg
,
G.
,
Kondratev
,
D.
,
Dyachenko
,
V.
,
Kazanski
,
V.
, and
Gallitelli
,
M. F.
,
2005
, “
Isolated Cardiomyocytes: Mechanosensitivity of Action Potential, Membrane Current and Ion Concentration
,”
Mechanosensitivity in Cells and Tissues
,
A.
Kamkin
, and
I.
Kiseleva
, Eds.,
Academia
,
Moscow
.
111.
Camelliti
,
P.
,
Al-Saud
,
S. A.
,
Smolenski
,
R. T.
,
Al-Ayoubi
,
S.
,
Bussek
,
A.
,
Wettwer
,
E.
,
Banner
,
N. R.
,
Bowles
,
C. T.
,
Yacoub
,
M. H.
, and
Terracciano
,
C. M.
,
2011
, “
Adult Human Heart Slices Are a Multicellular System Suitable for Electrophysiological and Pharmacological Studies
,”
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
,
51
(
3
), pp.
390
398
.10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.06.018
112.
Seo
,
K.
,
Inagaki
,
M.
,
Nishimura
,
S.
,
Hidaka
,
I.
,
Sugimachi
,
M.
,
Hisada
,
T.
, and
Sugiura
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Structural Heterogeneity in the Ventricular Wall Plays a Significant Role in the Initiation of Stretch-Induced Arrhythmias in Perfused Rabbit Right Ventricular Tissues and Whole Heart Preparations
,”
Circ. Res.
,
106
, pp.
176
184
.10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.203828
113.
de Boer
,
T. P.
,
Camelliti
,
P.
,
Ravens
,
U.
, and
Kohl
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Myocardial Tissue Slices: Organotypic Pseudo-2D Models for Cardiac Research & Development
,”
Future Cardiol.
,
5
(
5
), pp.
425
430
.10.2217/fca.09.32
114.
Engler
,
A. J.
,
Carag-Krieger
,
C.
,
Johnson
,
C. P.
,
Raab
,
M.
,
Tang
,
H.-Y.
,
Speicher
,
D. W.
,
Sanger
,
J. W.
,
Sanger
,
J. M.
, and
Discher
,
D. E.
,
2008
, “
Embryonic Cardiomyocytes Beat Best on a Matrix With Heart-Like Elasticity: Scar-Like Rigidity Inhibits Beating
,”
J. Cell Sci.
,
121
(Pt
22
), pp.
3794
802
.10.1242/jcs.029678
115.
Jacot
,
J. G.
,
McCulloch
,
A. D.
, and
Omens
,
J. H.
,
2008
, “
Substrate Stiffness Affects the Functional Maturation of Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes
,”
Biophys. J.
,
95
(
7
), pp.
3479
3487
.10.1529/biophysj.107.124545
116.
Yeung
,
T.
,
Georges
,
P. C.
,
Flanagan
,
L. A.
,
Marg
,
B.
,
Ortiz
,
M.
,
Funaki
,
M.
,
Zahir
,
N.
,
Ming
,
W.
,
Weaver
,
V.
, and
Janmey
,
P. A.
,
2005
, “
Effects of Substrate Stiffness on Cell Morphology, Cytoskeletal Structure, and Adhesion
,”
Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton
,
60
(
1
), pp.
24
34
.10.1002/cm.20041
117.
Alford
,
P. W.
,
Feinberg
,
A. W.
,
Sheehy
,
S. P.
, and
Parker
,
K. K.
,
2010
, “
Biohybrid Thin Films for Measuring Contractility in Engineered Cardiovascular Muscle
,”
Biomaterials
,
31
(
13
), pp.
3613
3621
.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.01.079
118.
Aubin
,
H.
,
Nichol
,
J. W.
,
Hutson
,
C. B.
,
Bae
,
H.
,
Sieminski
,
A. L.
,
Cropek
,
D. M.
,
Akhyari
,
P.
, and
Khademhosseini
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Directed 3D Cell Alignment and Elongation in Microengineered Hydrogels
,”
Biomaterials
,
31
(
27
), pp.
6941
6951
.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.05.056
119.
Sarig
,
U.
, and
Machluf
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Engineering Cell Platforms for Myocardial Regeneration
,”
Expert Opin. Biol. Ther.
,
11
(
8
), pp.
1055
1077
.10.1517/14712598.2011.578574
120.
Nawroth
,
J. C.
,
Lee
,
H.
,
Feinberg
,
A. W.
,
Ripplinger
,
C. M.
,
McCain
,
M. L.
,
Grosberg
,
A.
,
Dabiri
,
J. O.
, and
Parker
,
K. K.
,
2012
, “
A Tissue-Engineered Jellyfish With Biomimetic Propulsion
,”
Nat. Biotechnol.
,
30
, pp.
792
797
.10.1038/nbt.2269
121.
Davis
,
J.
,
Westfall
,
M. V.
,
Townsend
,
D.
,
Blankinship
,
M.
,
Herron
,
T. J.
,
Guerrero-serna
,
G.
,
Wang
,
W.
,
Devaney
,
E.
, and
Metzger
,
J. M.
,
2008
, “
Designing Heart Performance by Gene Transfer
,”
Physiol. Rev.
,
88
, pp.
1567
1651
.10.1152/physrev.00039.2007
122.
Houser
,
S. R.
,
Margulies
,
K. B.
,
Murphy
,
A. M.
,
Spinale
,
F. G.
,
Francis
,
G. S.
,
Prabhu
,
S. D.
,
Rockman
,
H. A.
,
Kass
,
D. A.
,
Molkentin
,
J. D.
,
Sussman
,
M. A.
, and
Koch
,
W. J.
,
2012
, “
Animal Models of Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
,”
Circ. Res.
,
111
, pp.
131
150
.10.1161/RES.0b013e3182582523
123.
Arrenberg
,
A. B.
,
Stainier
,
D. Y.
,
Baier
,
H.
, and
Huisken
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Optogenetic Control of Cardiac Function
,”
Science
,
330
(
6006
), pp.
971
974
.10.1126/science.1195929
124.
Kaushik
,
G.
,
Fuhrmann
,
A.
,
Cammarato
,
A.
, and
Engler
,
A. J.
,
2011
, “
In Situ Mechanical Analysis of Myofibrillar Perturbation and Aging on Soft, Bilayered Drosophila Myocardium
,”
Biophys. J.
,
101
(
11
), pp.
2629
2637
.10.1016/j.bpj.2011.10.042
125.
Rohr
,
S.
,
Scholly
,
D.
, and
Kleber
,
A. G.
,
1991
, “
Patterned Growth of Neonatal Rat Heart Cells in Culture. Morphological and Electrophysiological Characterization
,”
Circ. Res.
,
68
, pp.
114
130
.10.1161/01.RES.68.1.114
126.
Bursac
,
N.
,
Parker
,
K. K.
,
Iravanian
,
S.
, and
Tung
,
L.
,
2002
, “
Cardiomyocyte Cultures With Controlled Macroscopic Anisotropy: A Model for Functional Electrophysiological Studies of Cardiac Muscle
,”
Circ. Res.
,
91
(
12
), p.
e45
e54
.10.1161/01.RES.0000047530.88338.EB
127.
Camelliti
,
P.
,
McCulloch
,
A. D.
, and
Kohl
,
P.
,
2005
, “
Microstructured Cocultures of Cardiac Myocytes and Fibroblasts: A Two-Dimensional In Vitro Model of Cardiac Tissue
,”
Microsc. Microanal.
,
11
(
3
), pp.
249
259
.10.1017/S1431927605050506
128.
Costa
,
K. D.
,
Lee
,
E. J.
, and
Holmes
,
J. W.
,
2003
, “
Creating Alignment and Anisotropy in Engineered Heart Tissue: Role of Boundary Conditions in a Model Three-Dimensional Culture System
,”
Tissue Eng.
,
9
(
4
), pp.
567
577
.10.1089/107632703768247278
129.
Kuo
,
P.-L.
,
Lee
,
H.
,
Bray
,
M.-A.
,
Geisse
,
N. a.
,
Huang
,
Y.-T.
,
Adams
,
W. J.
,
Sheehy
,
S. P.
, and
Parker
,
K. K.
,
2012
, “
Myocyte Shape Regulates Lateral Registry of Sarcomeres and Contractility
,”
Am. J. Pathol.
,
181
(
6
), pp.
2030
2037
.10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.08.045
130.
McDevitt
,
T.
,
Angello
,
J.
,
Whitney
,
M.
,
Reinecke
,
H.
,
Hauschka
,
S.
,
Murry
,
C.
, and
Stayton
,
P.
,
2002
, “
In Vitro Generation of Differentiated Cardiac Myofibers on Micropatterned Laminin Surfaces
,”
J. Biomed. Mater. Res.
,
60
(
3
), pp.
472
479
.10.1002/jbm.1292
131.
Barbee
,
K. A.
,
Macarak
,
E. J.
, and
Thibault
,
L. E.
,
1994
, “
Strain Measurements in Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Subjected to Mechanical Deformation
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
22
(
1
), pp.
14
22
.10.1007/BF02368218
132.
Lee
,
A. A.
,
Delhaas
,
T.
,
McCulloch
,
A. D.
, and
Villarreal
,
F. J.
,
1999
, “
Differential Responses of Adult Cardiac Fibroblasts to In Vitro Biaxial Strain Patterns
,”
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
,
31
(
10
), pp.
1833
183
.10.1006/jmcc.1999.1017
133.
Camelliti
,
P.
,
Gallagher
,
J. O.
,
Kohl
,
P.
, and
McCulloch
,
A. D.
,
2006
, “
Micropatterned Cell Cultures on Elastic Membranes As an In Vitro Model of Myocardium
,”
Nat. Protoc.
,
1
(
3
), pp.
1379
1391
.10.1038/nprot.2006.203
134.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Sekar
,
R. B.
,
McCulloch
,
A. D.
, and
Tung
,
L.
,
2008
, “
Cell Cultures As Models of Cardiac Mechanoelectric Feedback
,”
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
,
97
(
2–3
), pp.
367
382
.10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2008.02.017
135.
Eschenhagen
,
T.
, Fink, C., Remmers, U., Scholz, H., Watfchow, J., Well, J., Zimmermann, W., Dohmen, H. H., Schafer, H., Bishopric, N., Wakatsuki, T., and Elson, E.,
1997
, “
Three-Dimensional Reconstitution of Embryonic Cardiomyocytes in a Collagen Matrix: A New Heart Muscle Model System
,”
FASEB J.
,
11
(
8
), pp.
683
694
.
136.
Asnes
,
C. F.
, Marquez, J. P., Elson, E. L., and Wakatsuki, T.,
2006
, “
Reconstitution of the Frank-Starling Mechanism in Engineered Heart Tissues
,”
Biophys. J.
,
91
(
5
), pp.
1800
1810
.10.1529/biophysj.105.065961
137.
de Lange
,
W. J.
, et al,
2011
, “
Neonatal Mouse-Derived Engineered Cardiac Tissue: A Novel Model System for Studying Genetic Heart Disease
,”
Circ Res
,
109
(
1
), pp.
8
19
.10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.242354
138.
Ralphe
,
J. C.
, and
de Lange
,
W. J.
,
2013
, “
3D Engineered Cardiac Tissue Models of Human Heart Disease: Learning More From Our Mice
,”
Trends Cardiovasc Med
,
23
(
2
), pp.
27
32
.
139.
Raman
,
S.
,
Kelley
,
M. A.
, and
Janssen
,
P. M.
,
2006
, “
Effect of Muscle Dimensions on Trabecular Contractile Performance Under Physiological Conditions
,”
Pflugers Arch
,
451
(
5
), pp.
625
630
.10.1007/s00424-005-1500-9
140.
Tong
,
C. W.
, Gaffin, R. D., Zawieja, D., and Muthuchamy, M.,
2004
, “
Roles of Phosphorylation of Myosin Binding Protein-C and Troponin I in Mouse Cardiac Muscle Twitch Dynamics
,”
J. Physiol.
,
558
(
Pt 3
), pp.
927
41
.10.1113/jphysiol.2004.062539
141.
ter Keurs
,
H. E.
,
Rijnsburger
,
W. H.
,
van Heuningen
,
R.
, and
Nagelsmit
,
M. J.
,
1980
, “
Tension Development and Sarcomere Length in Rat Cardiac Trabeculae. Evidence of Length-Dependent Activation
,”
Circ. Res.
,
46
(
5
), pp.
703
714
.10.1161/01.RES.46.5.703
142.
Backx
,
P. H.
, and
Ter Keurs
,
H. E.
,
1993
, “
Fluorescent Properties of Rat Cardiac Trabeculae Microinjected With Fura-2 Salt
,”
Am. J. Physiol.
,
264
(
4 Pt 2
), pp.
H1098
H1110
.
143.
Stull
,
L. B.
,
Leppo
,
M. K.
,
Marbán
,
E.
, and
Janssen
,
P. M. L.
,
2002
, “
Physiological Determinants of Contractile Force Generation and Calcium Handling in Mouse Myocardium
,”
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
,
34
(
10
), pp.
1367
1376
.10.1006/jmcc.2002.2065
144.
ter Keurs
,
H.
,
Schouten
,
V.
,
Bucx
,
J.
,
Mulder
,
B.
, and
de Tombe
,
P.
,
1987
, “
Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Myocardium: Implications of Calcium Release and Na+-Ca2+ Exchange
,”
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
,
65
(
4
), pp.
619
626
.10.1139/y87-104
145.
Tyberg
,
J. V.
,
Parmley
,
W. W.
, and
Sonnenblick
,
E. H.
,
1969
, “
In-Vitro Studies of Myocardial Asynchrony and Regional Hypoxia
,”
Circ. Res.
,
25
(
5
), pp.
569
579
.10.1161/01.RES.25.5.569
146.
Liu
,
T.
,
Brown
,
B. S.
,
Wu
,
Y.
,
Antzelevitch
,
C.
,
Kowey
,
P. R.
, and
Yan
,
G. X.
,
2006
, “
Blinded Validation of the Isolated Arterially Perfused Rabbit Ventricular Wedge in Preclinical Assessment of Drug-Induced Proarrhythmias
,”
Heart Rhythm
,
3
(
8
), pp.
948
956
.10.1016/j.hrthm.2006.04.021
147.
Di Diego
,
J. M.
, Sicouri, S., Myles, R. C., Burton, F. L., Smith, G. L., and Antzelevitch, C.,
2013
, “
Optical and Electrical Recordings From Isolated Coronary-Perfused Ventricular Wedge Preparations
,”
J. Mol. Cell Cardiol.
,
54
, pp.
53
64
.10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.10.017
148.
Glukhov
,
A. V.
,
Fedorov
,
V. V.
,
Lou
,
Q.
,
Ravikumar
,
V. K.
,
Kalish
,
P. W.
,
Schuessler
,
R. B.
, Moazami, N., and Efimov, I. R.,
2010
, “
Transmural Dispersion of Repolarization in Failing and Nonfailing Human Ventricle
,”
Circ. Res.
,
106
, pp.
981
991
.10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.204891
You do not currently have access to this content.