Axial loading of vertebral bodies has been shown to modulate growth. Longitudinal growth of the vertebral body is impaired by compressive forces while growth is stimulated by distraction. Investigations of torsional loading on the growth plate in the literature are few. The purposes of this study were two-fold: (1) to develop a torque device to apply torsional loads on caudal vertebrae and (2) investigate numerically and in vivo the feasibility of the application of the torque on the growth plate. A controllable torque device was developed and validated in the laboratory. A finite element study was implemented to examine mechanically the deformation of the growth plate and disk. A rat tail model was used with six 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three rats received a static torsional load, and three rats received no torque and served as sham control rats. A histological study was undertaken to investigate possible morphological changes in the growth plate, disk, and caudal bone. The device successfully applied a controlled torsional load to the caudal vertebrae. The limited study using finite element analysis (FEA) and histology demonstrated that applied torque increased lateral disk height and increased disk width. The study also found that the growth plate height increased, and the width decreased as well as a curved displacement of the growth plate. No significant changes were observed from the in vivo study in the bone. The torsional device does apply controlled torque and is well tolerated by the animal. This study with limited samples appears to result in morphological changes in the growth plate and disk. The use of this device to further investigate changes in the disk and growth plate is feasible.

References

References
1.
Stokes
,
I.
,
Spence
,
H.
,
Aronsson
,
D.
, and
Kilmer
,
N.
,
1996
, “
Mechanical Modulation of Vertebral Body Growth: Implications for Scoliosis Progression
,”
Spine
,
21
(
10
), pp.
1162
1167
.10.1097/00007632-199605150-00007
2.
Stokes
,
I.
,
Mente
,
P.
,
Iatridis
,
J.
,
Farnum
,
C.
, and
Aronsson
,
D.
,
2002
, “
Enlargement of Growth Plate Chondrocytes Modulated by Sustained Mechanical Loading
,”
J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am.
Vol.,
84
, pp.
1842
1848
.
3.
Stokes
,
I.
,
Gwadera
,
J.
,
Dimock
,
A.
,
Farnum
,
C.
, and
Aronsson
,
D.
,
2005
, “
Modulation of Vertebral and Tibial Growth by Compression Loading: Diurnal Versus Full-time Loading
,”
J. Orthop. Res.
,
23
,
pp. 188
195
.10.1016/j.orthres.2004.06.012
4.
Iatridis
,
J.
,
Mente
,
P.
,
Stokes
,
I.
,
Aronsson
,
D.
, and
Alini
,
M.
,
1999
, “
Compression-Induced Changes in Intravertebral Disc Properties in a Rat Tail Model
,”
Spine
,
24
(
10
), pp.
996
1002
.10.1097/00007632-199905150-00013
5.
Alberty
,
A.
,
Peltonen
,
J.
, and
Ritsila
,
V.
,
1993
, “
Effects of Distraction and Compression on Proliferation of Growth Plate Chondrocytes: A Study in Rabbits
,”
Acta Orthop. Scand.
,
64
(
4
), pp.
449
455
.10.3109/17453679308993665
6.
Ueki
,
M.
,
Tanaka
,
N.
,
Tanimoto
,
K.
,
Nishio
,
C.
,
Honda
,
K.
,
Yuki Tanne
,
Y.
,
Ohkuma
,
S.
,
Kamiya
,
T.
,
Tanaka
,
E.
, and
Tanne
,
K.
,
2008
, “
The Effect of Mechanical Loading on the Metabolism of Growth Plate Chondrocytes
,”
Ann. Biomedical Eng.
,
36
(
5
), pp.
793
800
.10.1007/s10439-008-9462-7
7.
Stokes
,
I.
,
Burwell
,
R.
, and
Dangerfield
,
P.
,
2006
, “
Biomechanical Spinal Growth Modulation and Progressive Adolescent Scoliosis—A Test of the ‘Vicious Cycle’ Pathogenetic Hypothesis: Summary of An Electronic Focus Group Debate of the IBSE
,”
Scoliosis
,
1
(
16
), pp.
1
21
.10.1186/1748-7161-1-16
8.
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Sucato
,
D.
,
2008
, “
Unilateral Pedical Screw Epiphysiodesis of the Neurocentral Synchondrosis. Production of Idiopathic-Like Scoliosis in an Immature Animal Model
,”
J. Bone Jt. Surg., A.
Vol.,
90
, pp.
2460
2469
.10.2106/JBJS.G.01493
9.
Wood
,
K.
,
Transfield
,
E.
,
Ogilvie
,
J.
,
Schendel
,
M.
, and
Bradford
,
D.
,
1991
, “
Rotational Changes of the Vetebral-Pelvic Axis Following Cotrel-Dubousset Instrumentation
,”
Spine
,
16
(
8
), pp.
404
408
.10.1097/00007632-199108001-00019
10.
Liu
,
X. C.
,
Fabry
,
G.
,
Labey
,
L.
,
Van Den Berghe
,
L.
,
Van Audekercke
,
R.
,
Molenaers
,
G.
, and
Moends
,
P.
,
1997
, “
A New-Technique for the Three-Dimensional Study of the Spine In-Vitro and In-Vivo by Using a Motion-Analysis System
,”
J. Spinal Disord.
,
10
(
4
), pp.
329
338
.10.1097/00002517-199708000-00009
11.
Arkin
,
A.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
1956
, “
The Effects of Pressure on Epiphyseal Growth. The Mechanism of Plasticity of Growing Bones
,”
J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am.
Vol.,
38-A
, pp.
1056
1076
.
12.
Rizza
,
R.
,
Liu
,
X.-C.
,
Thometz
,
J.
,
Lyon
,
R.
, and
Tassone
,
C.
,
2010
, “
Implementation of a New Torque Device in Ox-Tails
,”
Proceedings of the 2010 ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference
, Naples, FL, June 16–19.
13.
Thometz
,
J.
, and
Liu
,
X.-C.
,
2008
, “
Effects of a Growth Modulation Device on the Immature Goat Spine
,”
Proceedings of the 43rd SRS
, Salt Lake City, UT, Sept. 10–13.
14.
Moreland
,
M.
,
1980
, “
Morphological Effects of Torsion Applied to Growing Bone
,”
J. Bone Jt. Surg.
, Br. Vol.,
62-B
, pp.
230
237
.
15.
Barbir
,
A.
,
Godburn
,
K.
, and
Michalek
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Effects of Torsion on Intervertebral Disc Gene Expression and Biomechanics, Using a Rat Tail Model
,”
Spine
,
36
(
8
), pp.
607
614
.10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181d9b58b
16.
Michalek
,
A.
,
Funabashi
,
K.
, and
Iatridis
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Needle Puncture Injury of the Rat Intervertebral Disc Affects Torsional and Compressive Biomechanics Differently
,”
Eur. Spine J.
,
19
(
12
), pp.
2110
2116
.10.1007/s00586-010-1473-z
17.
Michalek
,
A.
, and
Iatridis
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Height and Torsional Stiffness are Most Sensitive to Annular Injury in Large Animal Intervertebral Discs
,”
Spine J.
,
12
, pp.
425
432
.10.1016/j.spinee.2012.04.001
18.
Villemure
,
I.
,
Aubin
,
C.
, and
Dansereau
,
J.
,
2002
, “
Simulation of Progressive Deformities in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Using a Biomechanical Model Integrating Vertebral Growth Modulation
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
124
(
4
), pp.
784
790
.10.1115/1.1516198
19.
Sylvestre
,
P.
,
Villemure
,
I.
, and
Aubin
,
C.
,
2007
, “
Finite Element Modeling of the Growth Plate in a Detailed Spine Model
,”
Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.
,
45
(
10
), pp.
977
988
.10.1007/s11517-007-0220-z
20.
Hardisty
,
M.
,
Sigal
,
I.
,
Skrinskas
,
T.
, and
Whyne
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Vertebral Strain Measurement: A Comparison of Image Registration VS. Finite Element Analysis
,”
J. Bone Jt. Surg.
,
Br
Vol.,
91-B
(
Supp II
), p.
226
.
21.
Beckwith
,
T.
,
Marangoni
,
R.
, and
Lienhard
,
J.
,
2007
,
Mechanical Measurements
,
6th ed.
,
Prentice-Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
22.
Elliott
,
D.
,
Espinoza-Orias
,
A.
, and
Malhorta
,
N.
,
2009
, “
Rat Disc Torsional Mechanics: Effect of Lumbar and Caudal Levels and Axial Compression
,”
Spine J.
,
9
(
3
), pp.
204
209
.10.1016/j.spinee.2008.01.014
23.
Ho
,
M.
,
Kelly
,
T.-A.
,
Guo
,
X.
,
Ateshian
,
G.
, and
Hung
,
C.
,
2006
, “
Spatially Varying Material Properties of the Rat Caudal Intervertebral Disc
,”
Spine
,
31
(
15
), pp.
E486
E493
.10.1097/01.brs.0000224532.42770.c1
You do not currently have access to this content.