The joint coordinate system convention proposed by Grood and Suntay has been widely adopted, but often misrepresented. Previous work has argued by logical explanation of the approach that the joint coordinate system is a set of Euler or Cardan angles. The current work offers both an explanation and mathematical proof that the joint coordinate system convention is equivalent to a Cardan angle sequence, thereby demonstrating the joint coordinate system angles are both sequence dependent and orthogonal.

References

References
1.
Grood
,
E. S.
, and
Suntay
,
W. J.
,
1983
, “
A Joint Coordinate System for the Clinical Description of Three-Dimensional Motions: Application to the Knee
,”
J. Biomech. Eng.
,
105
(
2
), pp.
136
144
.10.1115/1.3138397
2.
Baker
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Globographic Visualisation of Three Dimensional Joint Angles
,”
J. Biomech.
,
44
(
10
), pp.
1885
1891
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.04.031
3.
Baker
,
R.
,
2003
, “
ISB Recommendation on Definition of Joint Coordinate Systems for the Reporting of Human Joint Motion-Part I: Ankle, Hip and Spine
,”
J. Biomech.
,
36
(
2
), pp.
300
302; author reply pp
. 303–304.10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00336-6
4.
Tupling
S. J.
, and
Pierrynowski
,
M. R.
,
1987
, “
Use of Cardan Angles to Locate Rigid Bodies in Three-Dimensional Space
,”
Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.
,
25
(
5
), pp.
527
532
.10.1007/BF02441745
5.
Wu
,
G.
,
Siegler
,
S.
,
Allard
,
P.
,
Kirtley
,
C.
,
Leardini
,
A.
,
Rosenbaum
,
D.
,
Whittle
,
M.
,
D'Lima
,
D. D.
,
Cristofolini
,
L.
,
Witte
,
H.
,
Schmid
,
O.
, and
Stokes
, I
.
,
2002
, “
ISB Recommendation on Definitions of Joint Coordinate System of Various Joints for the Reporting of Human Joint Motion–Part I: Ankle, Hip, and Spine. International Society of Biomechanics
,”
J. Biomech.
,
35
(
4
), pp.
543
548
.10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00222-6
6.
Wu
,
G.
,
van der Helm
,
F. C. T.
,
Veeger
,
H. E. J. D.
,
Makhsous
,
M.
,
Van Roy
,
P.
,
Anglin
,
C.
,
Nagels
,
J.
,
Karduna
,
A. R.
,
McQuade
,
K.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Werner
,
F. W.
, and
Buchholz
,
B.
,
2005
, “
ISB Recommendation on Definitions of Joint Coordinate Systems of Various Joints for the Reporting of Human Joint Motion–Part II: Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist and Hand
,”
J. Biomech.
,
38
(
5
), pp.
981
992
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.05.042
You do not currently have access to this content.