Cyclic loading of surgical plating constructs can precipitate bone screw failure. As the frictional contact between the plate and the bone is lost, cantilever bending loads are transferred from the plate to the head of the screw, which over time causes fatigue fracture from cyclic bending. In this research, analytical models using beam mechanics theory were developed to describe the elastic deflection of a bicortical screw under a statically applied load. Four analytical models were developed to simulate the various restraint conditions applicable to bicortical support of the screw. In three of the models, the cortical bone near the tip of the screw was simulated by classical beam constraints (1) simply supported, (2) cantilever, and (3) split distributed load. In the final analytical model, the cortices were treated as an elastic foundation, whereby the response of the constraint was proportional to screw deflection. To test the predictive ability of the new analytical models, 3.5 mm cortical bone screws were tested in a synthetic bone substitute. A novel instrument was developed to measure the bending deflection of screws under radial loads (225 N, 445 N, and 670 N) applied by a surrogate surgical plate at the head of the screw. Of the four cases considered, the analytical model utilizing an elastic foundation most accurately predicted deflection at the screw head, with an average difference of 19% between the measured and predicted results. Determination of the bending moments from the elastic foundation model revealed that a maximum moment of 2.3 N m occurred near the middle of the cortical wall closest to the plate. The location of the maximum bending moment along the screw axis was consistent with the fracture location commonly observed in clinical practice.
Modeling Bicortical Screws Under a Cantilever Bending Load
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 20, 2013; final manuscript received September 8, 2013; accepted manuscript posted October 8, 2013; published online October 24, 2013. Editor: Beth Winkelstein.
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James, T. P., and Andrade, B. A. (October 24, 2013). "Modeling Bicortical Screws Under a Cantilever Bending Load." ASME. J Biomech Eng. December 2013; 135(12): 124502. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4025651
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