A challenge to the development of pediatric ventricular assist devices (PVADs) is the use of the aortic cannulae attached to the devices. Cannulae used for pediatric application have small diameters and large pressure drops. Furthermore, during the development of the 12cc Penn State pediatric PVAD, particle image velocimetry (PIV) illustrated that hematocrit levels, through changes in blood viscoelasticity, affected the fluid dynamics. The objective of this study is to compare the fluid dynamics of a pediatric viscoelastic blood analog and a goat viscoelastic blood analog within the PVAD aortic cannula. Two acrylic models were manufactured to model the aortic cannula (6 mm and 8 mm diameters). PIV data was collected to examine the flow at the outlet of the VAD and in the aortic cannula at heart rates of 50 and 75 beats per minute (bpm). Three planes of data were taken, one at the centerline and two 1.5 mm above and below the centerline. Three more planes of data were taken orthogonal to the original planes. While a 75 bpm heart rate was used to represent normal operating conditions, a 50 bpm heart rate represented use of the PVAD during weaning. At 75 bpm, differences were evident between the two different fluids and the two models. Separation zones developed in the plane below the centerline for the higher hematocrit pediatric blood analog. This study raises question to the usefulness of animal testing results in regard to how well they predict the outcome of pediatric patients.

References

References
1.
Baldwin
,
J. T.
,
Borovetz
,
H. S.
,
Duncan
,
B. W.
,
Gartner
,
M. J.
,
Jarvik
,
R. K.
,
Weiss
,
W. J.
, and
Hoke
,
T. R.
, 2006, “
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Pediatric Circulatory Support Program
,”
Circulation
,
113
, pp.
147
155
.
2.
Frazier
,
O. H.
, and
Myers
,
T. J.
, 1999, “
Left Ventricular Assist System as a Bridge to Myocardial Recovery
,”
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
,
68
, pp.
734
741
.
3.
Mancini
,
D. M.
,
Beniaminovitz
,
A.
,
Levin
,
H.
,
Catanese
,
K.
,
Flannery
,
M.
,
DiTullio
,
M.
,
Savin
,
S.
,
Cordisco
,
M. E.
,
Rose
,
E.
, and
Oz
,
M.
, 1998, “
Low Incidence of Myocardial Recovery After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure
,”
Circulation
,
98
, pp.
2383
2389
.
4.
Frazier
,
O. H.
,
Benedict
,
C. R.
,
Radovancevic
,
B.
,
Bick
,
R. J.
,
Capek
,
P.
,
Springer
,
W. E.
,
Macris
,
M. P.
,
Delgado
,
R.
, and
Buja
,
L. M.
, 1996, “
Improved Left Ventricular Function After Chronic Left Ventricular Unloading
,”
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
,
62
, pp.
675
682
.
5.
Zimmerman
,
H.
,
Covington
,
D.
,
Smith
,
R.
,
Inaht
,
C.
,
Barber
,
B.
, and
Copeland
,
J.
, 2010, “
Recovery of Dilated Cardiomyopathies in Infants and Children Using Left Ventricular Assist Devices
,”
ASAIO J.
,
56
, pp.
364
368
.
6.
Cassidy
,
J.
,
Haynes
,
S.
,
Kirk
,
R.
,
Crossland
,
D.
,
Smith
,
J. H.
,
Hamilton
,
L.
,
Griselli
,
M.
, and
Hasan
,
A.
, 2009, “
Changing Patterns of Bridging to Heart Transplantation in Children
,”
J. Heart Lung Transplant
,
28
, pp.
249
54
.
7.
Arabia
,
F. A.
,
Tsau
,
P. H.
,
Smith
,
R. G.
,
Nolan
,
P. E.
,
Paramesh
,
V.
,
Bose
,
R. K.
,
Woolley
,
D. S.
,
Sethi
,
G. K.
,
Rhenman
,
B. E.
, and
Copeland
,
J. G.
, 2006, “
Pediatric Bridge to Heart Transplantation: Application of the Berlin Heart, Medos and Thoratec Ventricular Assist Devices
,”
J. Heart Lung Transplant
,
25
, pp.
16
21
.
8.
Ando
,
Y.
,
Kitao
,
T.
,
Nagaoka
,
E.
,
Kimura
,
T.
,
Yokoyama
,
Y.
,
Yoshikawa
,
M.
,
Tominaga
,
R.
, and
Takatani
,
S.
, 2011, “
One-Month Biocompatibility Evaluation of the Pediatric TinyPump in Goats
,”
Artif. Organs
,
35
(
8
), pp.
813
818
.
9.
Yang
,
N.
,
Deutsch
,
S.
,
Paterson
,
E. G.
, and
Manning
,
K. B.
, 2010, “
Hemodynamics of an End-to-Side Anastomotic Graft for a Pulsatile Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device
,”
J. Biomech. Eng.
,
132
, pp.
031009
-1031009-
13
.
10.
Long
,
J. A.
,
Undar
,
A.
,
Manning
,
K. B.
, and
Deutsch
,
S.
, 2005, “
Viscoelasticity of Pediatric Blood and its Implications for the Testing of a Pulsatile Pediatric Blood Pump
,”
ASAIO J.
,
51
, pp.
563
566
.
11.
Undar
,
A.
,
Ji
,
B.
,
Rider
,
A.
,
Lukic
,
B.
,
Kunselman
,
A. R.
,
Weiss
,
W. J.
, and
Myers
,
J. L.
, 2007, “
Comparison of Four Different Pediatric 10F Aortic Cannulae During Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Perfusion in a Simulated Neonatal Model of Cardiopulmonary Bypass
,”
ASAIO J.
,
53
, pp.
778
784
.
12.
Mareels
,
G.
,
Kaminsky
,
R.
,
Eloot
,
S.
, and
Verdonck
,
P. R.
, 2007, “
Particle Image Velocimetry Validated, Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Design to Reduce Shear Stress and Residence Time in Central Venous Hemodialysis Catheters
,”
ASAIO J.
,
53
, pp.
438
446
.
13.
Muehrcke
,
D. D.
,
Cornhill
,
J. F.
,
Thomas
,
J. D.
, and
Cosgrove
,
D. M.
, 1995, “
Flow Characteristics of Aortic Cannulae
,”
J. Card. Surg.
,
10
(
4
), pp.
514
519
.
14.
De Paulis
,
R.
,
Engelhardt
,
H.
,
Chiariello
,
L.
,
Reul
,
H.
, and
Morea
,
M.
, 1990, “
In Vitro Evaluation of Left Ventricular Assistance by Cannulation of Both Femoral Arteries
,”
Int. J. Art. Org.
,
13
(
4
), pp.
237
246
.
15.
De Wachter
,
D.
,
De Somer
,
F.
, and
Verdonck
,
P.
, 2002, “
Hemodynamic Comparison of Two Different Pediatric Aortic Cannulas
,”
Int. J. Art. Org.
,
25
(
9
), pp.
867
874
.
16.
Hetzer
,
R.
,
Potapov
,
E. V.
,
Stiller
,
B.
,
Weng
,
Y.
,
Hubler
,
M.
,
Lemmer
,
J.
,
Alexi-Meskishvili
,
V.
,
Redlin
,
M.
,
Merkle
,
F.
,
Kaufmann
,
F.
, and
Hennig
,
E.
, 2006, “
Improvement in Survival After Mechanical Circulatory Support With Pneumatic Pulsatile Ventricular Assist Devices in Pediatric Patients
,”
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
,
82
, pp.
917
925
.
17.
Yang
,
N.
,
Deutsch
,
S.
,
Paterson
,
E. G.
, and
Manning
,
K. B.
, 2009, “
Numerical Study of Blood Flow at the End-to-side Anastomosis of a Left Ventricular Assist Device for Adult Patients
,”
J. Biomech. Eng.
,
131
(
11
), pp.
111005
-1–111005-
9
18.
Rosenberg
,
G.
,
Phillips
,
W. M.
, and
Landis
,
D. L.
, 1981, “
Design and Evaluation of the Pennsylvania State University Mock Circulatory System
,”
ASAIO J.
,
4
, pp.
41
49
.
19.
Hart
,
D. P.
, 1998, “
High-Speed PIV Analysis Using Compressed Image Correlation
,”
J. Fluids Eng.
,
120
, pp.
463
470
.
You do not currently have access to this content.