Fluoroscopic imaging is commonly used for assessing relative motions of orthopaedic implants. One limiting factor to in vivo model-based roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis of total knee arthroplasty is the need for 3D models of the implants.The 3D models of the implant components must be reverse-engineered, if not provided by the company, which makes this method impractical for a clinical study involving many types or sizes of implants. This study introduces a novel feature-based methodology that registers the features at the implant-bone or implant-cement interface of the components that have elementary shapes. These features include pegs with hemispherical heads, and straight, circular or curved edges located on flat faces of the box of the femoral component or the stem geometry of the tibial component. Software was developed to allow easy registration of these features through a graphical user interface. The accuracy and precision of registration for multiple flexion angles from 0 to 120 deg was determined with reference to registered poses of the implants through experiments on bone replica models and also on a cadaver specimen implanted with total knee prostheses. When compared to an equivalent bi-planar model-based registration, the results were comparable: The mean accuracy of this feature-based method was 1.45 deg and 1.03 mm (in comparison to 0.95 deg and 1.32 mm for the model-based approach), and the mean precision was 0.57 deg and 0.26 mm (in comparison to 0.42 deg and 0.44 mm for the model-based approach).The methodology and the developed software can easily accommodate different design of implants with various fixation features. This method can facilitate in vivo kinematic analysis of total knee arthroplasty by eliminating the need for 3D models of the implant components.

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