The photoselective vaporization of prostate (PVP) green light (532 nm) laser is increasingly being used as an alternative to the transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in older patients and those who are poor surgical candidates. In order to achieve the goals of increased tissue removal volume (i.e., “ablation” in the engineering sense) and reduced collateral thermal damage during the PVP green light treatment, a two dimensional computational model for laser tissue ablation based on available parameters in the literature has been developed and compared to experiments. The model is based on the control volume finite difference and the enthalpy method with a mechanistically defined energy necessary to ablate (i.e., physically remove) a volume of tissue (i.e., energy of ablation Eab). The model was able to capture the general trends experimentally observed in terms of ablation and coagulation areas, their ratio (therapeutic index (TI)), and the ablation rate (AR) (mm3/s). The model and experiment were in good agreement at a smaller working distance (WD) (distance from the tissue in mm) and a larger scanning speed (SS) (laser scan speed in mm/s). However, the model and experiment deviated somewhat with a larger WD and a smaller SS; this is most likely due to optical shielding and heat diffusion in the laser scanning direction, which are neglected in the model. This model is a useful first step in the mechanistic prediction of PVP based BPH laser tissue ablation. Future modeling efforts should focus on optical shielding, heat diffusion in the laser scanning direction (i.e., including 3D effects), convective heat losses at the tissue boundary, and the dynamic optical, thermal, and coagulation properties of BPH tissue.
Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Laser Tissue Ablation: Development and Experimental Validation of a New Numerical Model
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Elkhalil, H., Akkin, T., Pearce, J., and Bischof, J. (October 1, 2012). "Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Laser Tissue Ablation: Development and Experimental Validation of a New Numerical Model." ASME. J Biomech Eng. October 2012; 134(10): 101002. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4007452
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