The aim of this study was to maximize oxygen diffusion within a three-dimensional scaffold in order to improve cell viability and proliferation. To evaluate the effect of pore architecture on oxygen diffusion, we designed a regular channel shape with uniform diameter, referred to as cylinder shaped, and a new channel shape with a channel diameter gradient, referred to as cone shaped. A numerical analysis predicted higher oxygen concentration in the cone-shaped channels than in the cylinder-shaped channels, throughout the scaffold. To confirm these numerical results, we examined cell proliferation and viability in 2D constructs and 3D scaffolds. Cell culture experiments revealed that cell proliferation and viability were superior in the constructs and scaffolds with cone-shaped channels.

1.
Malda
,
J.
,
Klein
,
T. J.
, and
Upton
,
Z.
, 2007, “
The Roles of Hypoxia in the In Vitro Engineering of Tissues
,”
Tissue Eng.
1076-3279,
13
(
9
), pp.
2153
2162
.
2.
Karande
,
T. S.
,
Ong
,
J. L.
, and
Agrawal
,
C. M.
, 2004, “
Diffusion in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: Design Issues Related to Porosity, Permeability, Architecture and Nutrient Mixing
,”
Ann. Biomed. Med.
,
32
(
12
), pp.
1728
1743
.
3.
Malda
,
J.
,
Rouwkema
,
J.
,
Martens
,
D. E.
,
le Comte
,
E. P.
,
Kooy
,
F. K.
,
Tramper
,
J.
,
van Blitterswijk
,
C. A.
, and
Riesle
,
J.
, 2004, “
Oxygen Gradients in Tissue-Engineered PEGT/PBT Cartilaginous Constructs: Measurement and Modeling
,”
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
0006-3592,
86
(
1
), pp.
9
18
.
4.
Katoh
,
K.
,
Tanabe
,
T.
, and
Yamauchi
,
K.
, 2004, “
Novel Approach to Fabricate Keratin Sponge Scaffolds With Controlled Pore Size and Porosity
,”
Biomaterials
0142-9612,
25
(
18
), pp.
4255
4262
.
5.
Ma
,
P. X.
, and
Choi
,
J. W.
, 2001, “
Biodegradable Polymer Scaffolds With Well-Defined Interconnected Spherical Pore Network
,”
Tissue Eng.
1076-3279,
7
(
1
), pp.
23
33
.
6.
Mooney
,
D. J.
,
Baldwin
,
D. F.
,
Suh
,
N. P.
,
Vacanti
,
J. P.
, and
Langer
,
R.
, 1996, “
Novel Approach to Fabricate Porous Sponges of poly(D.L-Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Without the Use of Organic Solvents
,”
Biomaterials
0142-9612,
17
(
14
), pp.
1417
1422
.
7.
Leong
,
K. F.
,
Cheah
,
C. M.
, and
Chua
,
C. K.
, 2003, “
Solid Freeform Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Scaffolds for Engineering Replacement Tissue and Organs
,”
Biomaterials
0142-9612,
24
(
13
), pp.
2363
2378
.
8.
Malda
,
J.
,
Woodfield
,
T. B. F.
,
van der Vloodt
,
F.
,
Kooy
,
F. K.
,
Martens
,
D. E.
,
Tramper
,
J.
,
van Blitterswijk
,
C. A.
, and
Riesle
,
J.
, 2004, “
The Effect of PEGT/PBT Scaffold Architecture on Oxygen Gradients in Tissue Engineered Cartilaginous Constructs
,”
Biomaterials
0142-9612,
25
(
26
), pp.
5773
5780
.
9.
Malda
,
J.
,
Woodfield
,
T. B. F.
,
van der Vloodt
,
F.
,
Wilson
,
C.
,
Martens
,
D. E.
,
Tramper
,
J.
,
van Blitterswijk
,
C. A.
, and
Riesle
,
J.
, 2005, “
The Effect of PEGT/PBT Scaffold Architecture on the Composition of Tissue Engineered Cartilage
,”
Biomaterials
0142-9612,
26
(
1
), pp.
63
72
.
10.
Lewis
,
M. C.
,
Macarthur
,
B. D.
,
Malda
,
J.
,
Pettet
,
G.
, and
Please
,
C. P.
, 2005, “
Heterogeneous Proliferation Within Engineered Cartilaginous Tissue: The Role of Oxygen Tension
,”
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
0006-3592,
91
(
5
), pp.
607
615
.
11.
Kellner
,
K.
,
Liebsch
,
G.
,
Klimant
,
I.
,
Wolfbeis
,
O.
,
Blunk
,
T.
,
Schulz
,
M.
, and
Gopferich
,
A.
, 2002, “
Determination of Oxygen Gradients in Engineered Tissue Using a Fluorescent Sensor
,”
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
0006-3592,
80
(
1
), pp.
73
83
.
12.
Kang
,
H. -W.
,
Rhie
,
J. -W.
, and
Cho
,
D. -W.
, 2009, “
Development of a Bi-Pore Scaffold Using Indirect Solid Freeform Fabrication Based on Microstereolithography Technology
,”
Microelectron. Eng.
0167-9317,
86
(
4–6
), pp.
941
944
.
13.
Lee
,
J. W.
,
Ahn
,
G. S.
,
Kim
,
D. S.
, and
Cho
,
D. -W.
, 2009, “
Development of Nano- and Microscale Composite 3D Scaffolds Using PPF/DEF-HA and Micro-Stereolithography
,”
Microelectron. Eng.
0167-9317,
86
(
4–6
), pp.
1465
1467
.
14.
Kang
,
H. -W.
,
Seol
,
Y. -J.
, and
Cho
,
D. -W.
, 2009, “
Development of an Indirect Solid Freeform Fabrication Process Based on Microstereolithography for 3-D Porous Scaffolds
,”
J. Micromech. Microeng.
0960-1317,
19
(
1
), p.
015011
.
15.
Radisic
,
M.
,
Malda
,
J.
,
Epping
,
E.
,
Geng
,
W.
,
Langer
,
R.
, and
Vunjak-Novakovic
,
G.
, 2006, “
Oxygen Gradients Correlate With Cell Density and Cell Viability in Engineered Cardiac Tissue
,”
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
0006-3592,
93
(
2
), pp.
332
343
.
16.
Ye
,
H.
,
Das
,
D. B.
,
Trifftt
,
J. T.
, and
Cui
,
Z.
, 2006, “
Modeling Nutrient Transport in Hollow Fibre Membrane Bioreactors for Growing Three-Dimensional Bone Tissue
,”
J. Membr. Sci.
0376-7388,
272
(
1–2
), pp.
169
178
.
You do not currently have access to this content.