A model of the upper extremity is developed in which the forearm is constrained to lie in a horizontal plane and electrical stimulation is applied to the triceps muscle. Identification procedures are described to estimate the unknown parameters using tests that can be performed in a short period of time. Examples of identified parameters obtained experimentally are presented for both stroke patients and unimpaired subjects. A discussion concerning the identification’s repeatability, together with results confirming the accuracy of the overall representation, is given. The model has been used during clinical trials in which electrical stimulation is applied to the triceps muscle of a number of stroke patients for the purpose of improving both their performance at reaching tasks and their level of voluntary control over their impaired arm. Its purpose in this context is threefold: Firstly, changes occurring in the levels of stiffness and spasticity in each subject’s arm can be monitored by comparing frictional components of models identified at different times during treatment. Secondly, the model is used to calculate the moments applied during tracking tasks that are due to a patient’s voluntary effort, and it therefore constitutes a useful tool with which to analyze their performance. Thirdly, the model is used to derive the advanced controllers that govern the level of stimulation applied to subjects over the course of the treatment. Details are provided to show how the model is applied in each case, and sample results are shown.

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