The mass density, Young’s modulus , tangent modulus , and yield stress of the human ribs, sternum, internal organs, and muscles play important roles when determining impact responses of the chest associated with pendulum impact. A series of parametric studies was conducted using a commercially available three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) of the whole human body, to determine the effect of changing these material properties on the predicted impact force, chest deflection, and the number of rib fractures and fractured ribs. Results from this parametric study indicate that the initial chest apparent stiffness was mainly influenced by the stiffness and mass density of the superficial muscles covering the torso. The number of rib fractures and fractured ribs was primarily determined by the stiffness of the ribcage. Similarly, the stiffness of the ribcage and internal organs contributed to the maximum chest deflection in frontal impact, while the maximum chest deflection for lateral impact was mainly affected by the stiffness of the ribcage. Additionally, the total mass of the whole chest had a moderately effect on the number of rib fractures.
Effect of Assumed Stiffness and Mass Density on the Impact Response of the Human Chest Using a Three-Dimensional FE Model of the Human Body
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Kimpara, H., Iwamoto, M., Watanabe, I., Miki, K., Lee, J. B., Yang, K. H., and King, A. I. (April 19, 2006). "Effect of Assumed Stiffness and Mass Density on the Impact Response of the Human Chest Using a Three-Dimensional FE Model of the Human Body." ASME. J Biomech Eng. October 2006; 128(5): 772–776. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2264394
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