Accurate estimations of body segment inertial parameters (BSPs) are required to calculate the kinetics of motion. The purpose of this study was to develop a geometric model of the human thigh segment based on mass distribution properties determined from dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DEXA). One hundred subjects from four populations underwent a DEXA scan and anthropometric measurements were taken. The mass distribution properties of the thigh segment were determined for 20 subjects, a geometric model was developed, and the model was applied to the remaining 80 subjects. The model was validated by comparing to benchmark DEXA measurements. Four other popular models in the literature were also evaluated in the same manner. No one set of predictors performed best for a particular group or BSP, however modeling the mass distribution properties of the segment allows the assumption of constant density while still accurately representing the inertial properties of the segment and provides promise for future development of BSP models.

1.
Durkin
,
J. L.
,
Dowling
,
J. J.
, and
Andrews
,
D. M.
, 2002, “
The Measurement of Body Segment Inertial Parameters Using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
,”
J. Biomech.
0021-9290,
35
(
12
), pp.
1575
1580
.
2.
Pearsall
,
D. J.
, and
Reid
,
J. G.
, 1994, “
The Study of Human Body Segment Parameters in Biomechanics
,”
Sports Med.
0112-1642,
18
(
2
), pp.
126
140
.
3.
Braune
,
W.
, and
Fischer
,
O.
, 1889, “
The Centre of Gravity of the Human Body as Related to the German Infantryman
,” ATI 138 452,
National Technical Information Service
, Leipzig.
4.
Chandler
,
R. F.
,
Clauser
,
J. T.
,
McConville
,
H. M.
,
Reynolds
,
H. M.
and
Young
,
J. W.
, 1975, “
Investigation of Inertial Properties of the Human Body
,” AMRL-TR-74-137,
Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory
, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
5.
Clauser
,
C. E.
,
McConville
,
J. T.
, and
Young
,
J. W.
, 1969, “
Weight, Volume, and Center of Mass of Segments of the Human Body
,” AMRL-TR-69-70,
Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory
, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
6.
Dempster
,
W. T.
, 1955, “
Space requirements of the Seated Operator
,” WADC-TR-55-159,
Wright Air Development Center
, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
7.
Harless
,
E.
, 1860, “
Die statischen Momente der menschlichen Gliedmassen
,”
Abh. Math.-Phys. Kl. Saechs. Akad. Wiss.
0080-5289,
8
, pp.
69
–96, 257–
294
.
8.
Young
,
J. W.
,
Chandler
,
R. F.
, and
Snow
,
C. C.
, 1983, “
Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female
,” FAA-AM-83-16,
FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute
, OK.
9.
Drillis
,
R.
, and
Contini
,
R.
, 1966, “
Body Segment Parameters
,” TR-1166-03,
University, School of Engineering Science
, NY.
10.
Peyton
,
A. J.
, 1986, “
Determination of the Moment of Inertia of Limb Segments by a Simple Method
,”
J. Biomech.
0021-9290,
19
(
5
), pp.
405
410
.
11.
Hanavan
,
E. P.
, 1964, “
A Mathematical Model of the Human Body
,” AMRL-TR-64-102,
Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory
, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
12.
Jensen
,
R. K.
, 1978, “
Estimation of the Biomechanical Properties of Three Body Types Using a Photogrammetric Method
,”
J. Biomech.
0021-9290,
11
(
8–9
), pp
349
358
.
13.
Hatze
,
H.
, 1980, “
A Mathematical Model for the Computational Determination of Parameter Values of Anthropomorphic Segments
,”
J. Biomech.
0021-9290,
13
(
10
), pp.
833
843
.
14.
Zatsiorsky
,
V.
, and
Seluyanov
,
V.
, 1983, “
The Mass and Inertia Characteristics of the Main Segments of the Human Body
,”
Biomechanics V-IIIB
,
H.
Matsui
. and
K.
Kobayashi
, eds.,
Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.
, Champaign, IL, pp.
1152
1159
.
15.
Zatsiorsky
,
V.
,
Seluyanov
,
V.
, and
Chugunova
,
L. G.
, 1990, “
Methods of Determining Mass-Inertial Characteristics of Human Body Segments
,”
Contemporary Problems of Biomechanics
,
G. G.
Chernyi
and
S. A.
Regirer
, eds.,
CRC Press
, Boston, pp.
272
291
.
16.
Huang
,
H. K.
, 1983, “
Evaluation of Cross-Sectional Geometry and Mass Density Distributions of Humans and Laboratory Animals Using Computerized Tomography
,”
J. Biomech.
0021-9290,
16
(
10
), pp.
821
832
.
17.
Pearsall
,
D. J.
,
Reid
,
J. G.
, and
Livingston
,
L. A.
, 1996, “
Segmental Inertial Parameters of the Human Trunk as Determined from Computed Tomography
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
0090-6964,
24
(
2
), pp.
198
210
.
18.
Cheng
,
C.-K.
,
Chen
,
H.-H.
,
Chen
,
C.-S.
,
Lee
,
C.-L.
and
Chen
,
C.-Y.
, 2000, “
Segment Inertial Properties of Chinese Adults Determined from Magnetic Resonance Imaging
,”
Clin. Biochem.
0009-9120,
15
(
8
), pp.
559
566
.
19.
Martin
,
P. E.
,
Mungiole
,
M.
,
Marzke
,
M. W.
, and
Longhill
,
J. M.
, 1989, “
The Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Measuring Segment Inertial Properties
,”
J. Biomech.
0021-9290,
22
(
4
), pp.
367
376
.
20.
Mungiole
,
M.
, and
Martin
,
P. E.
, 1990, “
Estimating Segment Inertial Properties: Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Existing Methods
,”
J. Biomech.
0021-9290,
23
(
10
), pp.
1039
1046
.
21.
Ganley
,
K. J.
, and
Powers
,
C. M.
, 2004, “
Anthropometric Parameters in Children: a Comparison of Values Obtained from Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Cadaver-Based Estimates
,”
Gait and Posture
,
19
(
2
), pp.
133
140
.
22.
Durkin
,
J. L.
, and
Dowling
,
J. J.
, 2003, “
Analysis of Body Segment Parameter Differences Between Four Human Populations and the Estimation Errors of Four Popular Mathematical Models
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
0148-0731,
125
, pp.
515
522
.
23.
Ackland
,
T. R.
,
Henson
,
P. W.
, and
Bailey
,
D. A.
, 1988, “
The Uniform Density Assumption: Its Effect Upon the Estimation of Body Segment Inertial Parameters
,”
Int J Sport Biomech
,
4
, pp.
146
155
.
24.
Durkin
,
J. L.
, 1998, “
The Prediction of Body Segment Parameters Using Geometric Modelling and Dual Photon Absorptiometry
,” Masters thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton.
25.
Wei
,
C.
, and
Jensen
,
R. K.
, 1995, “
The Application of Segment Axial Density Profiles to a Human Body Inertia Model
,”
J. Biomech.
0021-9290,
28
(
1
), pp.
103
108
.
26.
Demirjian
,
A.
, 1980,
Nutrition Canada Anthropometry Report: Height, Weight and Body Dimensions
,
Heath and Welfare Canada
, Ottawa, pp.
28
43
.
27.
Chilibeck
,
P.
,
Calder
,
A.
,
Sale
,
D. G.
, and
Webber
,
C.
, 1994, “
Reproducibility of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
,”
Can. Assoc. Radiol. J.
,
45
(
4
), pp.
297
302
.
28.
Lodder
,
M. C.
,
Lems
,
W. F.
,
Ader
,
H. J.
,
Marthinsen
,
A. E.
,
van Coeverden
,
S. C.
,;
Lips
,
P.
,
Netelenbos
,
J. C.
,
Dijkmans
,
B. A.
, and
Roos
,
J. C.
, 2004, “
Reproducibility of Bone Mineral Density Measurement in Daily Practice
,”
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
0003-4967,
63
(
3
), pp.
285
289
.
29.
Shrout
,
P. E.
and
Fleiss
,
J. L.
, 1979, “
Intraclass Correlations: Uses in Assessing Rater Reliability
”,
Psychol. Bull.
0033-2909,
86
(
2
), pp.
420
428
.
30.
Winter
,
D. A.
, 1990,
Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement
,
2nd ed.
,
Wiley
, NY, pp.
51
64
.
31.
Pearsall
,
D. J.
, and
Costigan
,
P. A.
, 1999, “
The Effect of Segment Parameter Error on Gait Analysis Results
,”
Gait and Posture
,
9
(
3
),
173
183
.
32.
Ganley
,
K. J.
, and
Powers
,
C. M.
, 2004, “
Determination of Llower Extremity Anthropometric Parameters Using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: The Influence on Net Joint Moments During Gait
,”
Clin. Biomech. (Los Angel. Calif.)
0191-7870,
19
(
1
), pp.
50
56
.
33.
Andrews
,
J. G.
, and
Mish
,
S. P.
, 1996, “
Methods for Investigating the Sensitivity of Joint Resultants to Body Segment Parameter Variations
,”
J. Biomech.
0021-9290,
29
(
5
), pp.
651
654
.
You do not currently have access to this content.