Difficulties in predicting the behavior of some high Reynolds number flows in the circulatory system stem in part from the severe requirements placed on the turbulence model chosen to close the time-averaged equations of fluid motion. In particular, the successful turbulence model is required to (a) correctly capture the “nonequilibrium” effects wrought by the interactions of the organized mean-flow unsteadiness with the random turbulence, (b) correctly reproduce the effects of the laminar-turbulent transitional behavior that occurs at various phases of the cardiac cycle, and (c) yield good predictions of the near-wall flow behavior in conditions where the universal logarithmic law of the wall is known to be not valid. These requirements are not immediately met by standard models of turbulence that have been developed largely with reference to data from steady, fully turbulent flows in approximate local equilibrium. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of a turbulence model suited for use in arterial flows. The model is of the two-equation eddy-viscosity variety with dependent variables that are zero-valued at a solid wall and vary linearly with distance from it. The effects of transition are introduced by coupling this model to the local value of the intermittency and obtaining the latter from the solution of a modeled transport equation. Comparisons with measurements obtained in oscillatory transitional flows in circular tubes show that the model produces substantial improvements over existing closures. Further pulsatile-flow predictions, driven by a mean-flow wave form obtained in a diseased human carotid artery, indicate that the intermittency-modified model yields much reduced levels of wall shear stress compared to the original, unmodified model. This result, which is attributed to the rapid growth in the thickness of the viscous sublayer arising from the severe acceleration of systole, argues in favor of the use of the model for the prediction of arterial flows.
A Turbulence Model for Pulsatile Arterial Flows
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division March 16, 2004; revision received April 5, 2004. Associate Editor: P. V. Bayly.
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Younis, B. A., and Berger, S. A. (November 23, 2004). "A Turbulence Model for Pulsatile Arterial Flows ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. October 2004; 126(5): 578–584. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1798032
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