An increase in anterior laxity following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can result from lengthening of the graft construct in either the regions of fixation and/or the region of the graft substance between the fixations. RSA could be a useful technique to determine lengthening in these regions if a method can be devised for attaching radio-opaque markers to soft tissue grafts so that marker migration from repeated loading of the graft is limited. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to develop a method for attaching radio-opaque markers to an ACL graft that limits marker migration within the graft, 2) to characterize the error of an RSA system used to study migration, and 3) to determine the maximum amount of migration and the time when it occurs during cyclic loading of ACL grafts. Tendon markers were constructed from a 0.8-mm tantalum ball and a stainless steel suture. Ten double-looped tendon grafts were passed through tibial tunnels drilled in bovine tibias and fixed with a tibial fixation device. Two tendon markers were sewn to one tendon bundle of each graft and the grafts were cyclically loaded for 225,000 cycles from 20 N to 170 N. At specified intervals, simultaneous radiographs were obtained of the tendon markers and a radiographic standard of known length. The bias and imprecision in measuring the length of the radiographic standard were 0.0 and 0.046 mm respectively. Marker migration was computed as the change in distance between the two tendon markers along the axis of the tibial tunnel. Marker migration was greatest after 225,000 cycles with a root mean square (RMS) value of less than 0.2 mm. Because the RMS value indicates the error introduced into measurements of lengthening and because this error is small, the method described for attaching markers to an ACL graft has the potential to be useful for determining lengthening of ACL graft constructs in in vivo studies in humans.
How Cyclic Loading Affects the Migration of Radio-Opaque Markers Attached to Tendon Grafts Using a New Method: A Study Using Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis (RSA)
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division September 5, 2002; revision received October 10, 2003. Associate Editor: M. G. Pandy.
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Roos, P. J., Hull, M. L., and Howell, S. M. (March 9, 2004). "How Cyclic Loading Affects the Migration of Radio-Opaque Markers Attached to Tendon Grafts Using a New Method: A Study Using Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis (RSA) ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. February 2004; 126(1): 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1644568
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