A primary mechanism of solute transport in articular cartilage is believed to occur through passive diffusion across the articular surface, but cyclical loading has been shown experimentally to enhance the transport of large solutes. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of dynamic loading within a theoretical context, and to investigate the circumstances under which convective transport induced by dynamic loading might supplement diffusive transport. The theory of incompressible mixtures was used to model the tissue (gel) as a mixture of a gel solid matrix (extracellular matrix/scaffold), and two fluid phases (interstitial fluid solvent and neutral solute), to solve the problem of solute transport through the lateral surface of a cylindrical sample loaded dynamically in unconfined compression with frictionless impermeable platens in a bathing solution containing an excess of solute. The resulting equations are governed by nondimensional parameters, the most significant of which are the ratio of the diffusive velocity of the interstitial fluid in the gel to the solute diffusivity in the gel the ratio of actual to ideal solute diffusive velocities inside the gel the ratio of loading frequency to the characteristic frequency of the gel and the compressive strain amplitude Results show that when and dynamic loading can significantly enhance solute transport into the gel, and that this effect is enhanced as increases. Based on representative material properties of cartilage and agarose gels, and diffusivities of various solutes in these gels, it is found that the ranges correspond to large solutes, whereas is in the range of physiological loading frequencies. These theoretical predictions are thus in agreement with the limited experimental data available in the literature. The results of this study apply to any porous hydrated tissue or material, and it is therefore plausible to hypothesize that dynamic loading may serve to enhance solute transport in a variety of physiological processes.
Modeling of Neutral Solute Transport in a Dynamically Loaded Porous Permeable Gel: Implications for Articular Cartilage Biosynthesis and Tissue Engineering
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division September 19, 2002; revision received April 21, 2003. Associate Editor: J. Humphrey.
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Mauck, R. L., Hung, C. T., and Ateshian, G. A. (October 9, 2003). "Modeling of Neutral Solute Transport in a Dynamically Loaded Porous Permeable Gel: Implications for Articular Cartilage Biosynthesis and Tissue Engineering ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. October 2003; 125(5): 602–614. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1611512
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