Calculating the kinetics of motion using inverse or forward dynamics methods requires the use of accurate body segment inertial parameters. The methods available for calculating these body segment parameters (BSPs) have several limitations and a main concern is the applicability of predictive equations to several different populations. This study examined the differences in BSPs between 4 human populations using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), developed linear regression equations to predict mass, center of mass location (CM) and radius of gyration (K) in the frontal plane on 5 body segments and examined the errors produced by using several BSP sources in the literature. Significant population differences were seen in all segments for all populations and all BSPs except hand mass, indicating that population specific BSP predictors are needed. The linear regression equations developed performed best overall when compared to the other sources, yet no one set of predictors performed best for all segments, populations or BSPs. Large errors were seen with all models which were attributed to large individual differences within groups. Equations which account for these differences, including measurements of limb circumferences and breadths may provide better estimations. Geometric models use these parameters, however the models examined in this study did not perform well, possibly due to the assumption of constant density or the use of an overly simple shape. Creating solids which account for density changes or which mimic the mass distribution characteristics of the segment may solve this problem. Otherwise, regression equations specific for populations according to age, gender, race, and morphology may be required to provide accurate estimations of BSPs for use in kinetic equations of motion.
Analysis of Body Segment Parameter Differences Between Four Human Populations and the Estimation Errors of Four Popular Mathematical Models
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division December 14, 2001; revision received April 1, 2003. Associate Editor: C. L. Vaughan.
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Durkin, J. L., and Dowling, J. J. (August 1, 2003). "Analysis of Body Segment Parameter Differences Between Four Human Populations and the Estimation Errors of Four Popular Mathematical Models ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. August 2003; 125(4): 515–522. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1590359
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