By generalizing a previous model proposed in the literature, a new spatial kinematic model of the knee joint passive motion is presented. The model is based on an equivalent spatial parallel mechanism which relies upon the assumption that fibers within the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be considered as isometric during the knee flexion in passive motion (virtually unloaded motion). The articular surfaces of femoral and tibial condyles are modelled as 3-D surfaces of general shapes. In particular, the paper presents the closure equations of the new mechanism both for surfaces represented by means of scalar equations that have the Cartesian coordinates of the points of the surface as variables and for surfaces represented in parametric form. An example of simulation is presented in the case both femoral condyles are modelled as ellipsoidal surfaces and tibial condyles as spherical surfaces. The results of the simulation are compared to those of the previous models and to measurements. The comparison confirms the expectation that a better approximation of the tibiofemoral condyle surfaces leads to a more accurate model of the knee passive motion.
A Spatial Mechanism With Higher Pairs for Modelling the Human Knee Joint
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received June 2000; revised manuscript received November 2002. Associate Editor: M. G. Pandy.
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Di Gregorio, R., and Parenti-Castelli, V. (April 9, 2003). "A Spatial Mechanism With Higher Pairs for Modelling the Human Knee Joint ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. April 2003; 125(2): 232–237. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1559895
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