In this study, a basic model is introduced to describe the biomechanical properties of the wood from the viewpoint of the composite structure of its cell wall. First, the mechanical interaction between the cellulose microfibril (CMF) as a bundle framework and the lignin-hemicellulose as a matrix (MT) skeleton in the secondary wall is formulated based on “the two phase approximation.” Thereafter, the origins of (1) tree growth stress, (2) shrinkage or swelling anisotropy of the wood, and (3) moisture dependency of the Young’s modulus of wood along the grain were simulated using the newly introduced model. Through the model formulation; (1) the behavior of the cellulose microfibril (CMF) and the matrix substance (MT) during cell wall maturation was estimated; (2) the moisture reactivity of each cell wall constituent was investigated; and (3) a realistic model of the fine composite structure of the matured cell wall was proposed. Thus, it is expected that the fine structure and internal property of each cell wall constituent can be estimated through the analyses of the macroscopic behaviors of wood based on the two phase approximation.

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