Tether formation, which is mechanically characterized by its threshold force and effective viscosity, is involved in neutrophil emigration from blood circulation. Using the micropipette aspiration technique, which was improved by quantitative contact control and computerized data analysis, we extracted tethers from human neutrophils treated with IL-8, PMA, or cytochalasin D. We found that both IL-8 and PMA elevated the threshold force to about twice as large as the value for passive neutrophils. All these treatments decreased the effective viscosity dramatically (∼80%). With a novel method, the residual cortical tension of the cytochalasin-D-treated non-spherical neutrophils was measured to be ∼8.8 pN/μm.

1.
Shao
,
J.-Y.
,
Ting-Beall
,
H. P.
, and
Hochmuth
,
R. M.
,
1998
, “
Static and Dynamic Lengths of Neutrophil Microvilli
,”
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
,
95
, pp.
6797
6802
.
2.
Schmidtke
,
D. W.
, and
Diamond
,
S. L.
,
2000
, “
Direct Observation of Membrane Tethers Formed During Neutrophil Attachment to Platelets or P-selectin Under Physiological Flow
,”
J. Cell Biol.
,
149
, pp.
719
729
.
3.
Edwards, S. W., 1994, Biochemistry and Physiology of the Neutrophil, Cambridge University Press, New York.
4.
Evans
,
E.
, and
Yeung
,
A.
,
1994
, “
Hidden Dynamics in Rapid Changes of Bilayer Shape
,”
Chem. Phys. Carbon
,
73
, pp.
39
56
.
5.
Waugh
,
R. E.
, and
Bauserman
,
R. G.
,
1995
, “
Physical Measurements of Bilayer-skeletal Separation Forces
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
23
, pp.
308
321
.
6.
Hochmuth
,
R. M.
,
Shao
,
J.-Y.
,
Dai
,
J.
, and
Sheetz
,
M. P.
,
1996
, “
Deformation and Flow of Membrane into Tethers Extracted From Neuronal Growth Cones
,”
Biophys. J.
,
70
, pp.
358
369
.
7.
Shao
,
J.-Y.
, and
Hochmuth
,
R. M.
,
1996
, “
Micropipette Suction for Measuring Piconewton Forces of Adhesion and Tether Formation from Neutrophil Membranes
,”
Biophys. J.
,
71
, pp.
2892
2901
.
8.
Levin
,
J. D.
,
Ting-Beall
,
H. P.
, and
Hochmuth
,
R. M.
,
2001
, “
Correlating the Kinetics of Cytokine-induced E-selectin Adhesion and Expression on Endothelial Cells
,”
Biophys. J.
,
80
, pp.
656
667
.
9.
Shao
,
J.-Y.
, and
Hochmuth
,
R. M.
,
1999
, “
Mechanical Anchoring Strength of L-selectin, β2 Integrins and CD45 to Neutrophil Cytoskeleton and Membrane
,”
Biophys. J.
,
77
, pp.
587
596
.
10.
Engstrom
,
K. G.
,
Moller
,
B.
, and
Meiselman
,
H. J.
,
1992
, “
Optical Evaluation of Red Blood Cell Geometry Using Micropipette Aspiration
,”
Blood Cells
,
18
, pp.
241
258
.
11.
Evans
,
E.
, and
Yeung
,
A.
,
1989
, “
Apparent Viscosity and Cortical Tension of Blood Granulocytes Determined by Micropipette Aspiration
,”
Biophys. J.
,
56
, pp.
151
160
.
12.
Ting-Beall
,
H. P.
,
Lee
,
A. S.
, and
Hochmuth
,
R. M.
,
1995
, “
Effect of Cytochalasin D on the Mechanical Properties and Surface Morphology of Passive Human Neutrophils
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
23
, pp.
666
671
.
13.
Tsai
,
M. A.
,
Frank
,
R. S.
, and
Waugh
,
R. E.
,
1994
, “
Passive Mechanical Behavior of Human Neutrophils: Effect of Cytochalasin B
,”
Biophys. J.
,
66
, pp.
2166
2172
.
14.
Waugh, R. E., and Hochmuth, R. M., 1995, “Mechanics and Deformability of Hematocytes,” The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Bronzino, J. D., ed. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, pp. 474–486.
15.
Gelles
,
J.
,
Schnapp
,
B. J.
, and
Sheetz
,
M. P.
,
1988
, “
Tracking Kinesin-driven Movements with Nanometer-scale Precision
,”
Nature (London)
,
331
, pp.
450
453
.
16.
Devore, J. L., 1995, Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences, 4th Ed., Wadsworth, Inc., Belmont, CA.
17.
Zar, J. H., 1999, Biostatistical Analysis, 4th Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.
18.
Chesla
,
S. E.
,
Selvaraj
,
P.
, and
Zhu
,
C.
,
1998
, “
Measuring Two-dimensional Receptor-ligand Binding Kinetics by Micropipette
,”
Biophys. J.
,
75
, pp.
1553
1572
.
19.
Piper
,
J. W.
,
Swerlick
,
R. A.
, and
Zhu
,
C.
,
1998
, “
Determining Force Dependence of Two-dimensional Receptor-ligand Binding Affinity by Centrifugation
,”
Biophys. J.
,
74
, pp.
492
513
.
20.
Kaplanski
,
G.
,
Teysseire
,
N.
,
Farnarier
,
C.
,
Kaplanski
,
S.
,
Lissitzky
,
J. C.
,
Durand
,
J. M.
,
Soubeyrand
,
J.
,
Dinarello
,
C. A.
, and
Bongrand
,
P.
,
1995
, “
IL-6 and IL-8 Production from Cultured Human Endothelial Cells Stimulated by Infection With Rickettsia Conorii Via a Cell-associated IL-1 Alpha-dependent Pathway
,”
J. Clin. Invest.
,
96
, pp.
2839
2844
.
21.
Huber
,
A. R.
,
Kunkel
,
S. L.
,
Todd
,
R. F.
, and
Weiss
,
S. J.
,
1991
, “
Regulation of Transendothelial Neutrophil Migration by Endogenous Interleukin-8
,”
Science
,
254
, pp.
99
102
.
22.
Lavkan
,
A. H.
,
Astiz
,
M. E.
, and
Rackow
,
E. C.
,
1998
, “
Effects of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Bacterial Toxins on Neutrophil Rheologic Properties
,”
Crit. Care Med.
,
26
, pp.
1677
1682
.
23.
Kucik
,
D. F.
,
Dustin
,
M. L.
,
Miller
,
J. M.
, and
Brown
,
E. J.
,
1996
, “
Adhesion-activating Phorbol Ester Increases the Mobility of Leukocyte Integrin LFA-1 in Cultured Lymphocytes
,”
J. Clin. Invest.
,
97
, pp.
2139
2144
.
24.
Liu
,
Z.-Y.
,
Young
,
J.-I.
, and
Elson
,
E. L.
,
1987
, “
Rat Basophilic Leukemia Cells Stiffen When They Secrete
,”
J. Cell Biol.
,
105
, pp.
2933
2943
.
25.
Diamond
,
M. S.
, and
Springer
,
T. A.
,
1993
, “
A Subpopulation of mac-1(CD11b/CD18) Molecules Mediates Neutrophil Adhesion to ICAM-1 and Fibrinogen
,”
J. Cell Biol.
,
120
, pp.
545
556
.
26.
Springer
,
T. A.
,
1995
, “
Traffic Signals on Endothelium for Lymphocyte Recirculation and Leukocyte Emigration
,”
Annu. Rev. Physiol.
,
57
, pp.
827
872
.
27.
Tsai
,
M. A.
,
Frank
,
R. S.
, and
Waugh
,
R. E.
,
1993
, “
Passive Mechanical Behavior of Human Neutrophils: Power-law Fluid
,”
Biophys. J.
,
65
, pp.
2078
2088
.
28.
Drury
,
J. L.
, and
Dembo
,
M.
,
1999
, “
Hydrodynamics of Micropipette Aspiration
,”
Biophys. J.
,
76
, pp.
110
128
.
29.
Kuo
,
S. C.
, and
Sheetz
,
M.
,
1992
, “
Optical Tweezers in Cell Biology
,”
Trends Cell Biol.
,
2
, pp.
116
118
.
30.
Williams
,
T. E.
,
Nagarajan
,
S.
,
Selvaraj
,
P.
, and
Zhu
,
C.
,
2000
, “
Concurrent and Independent Binding of Fcgamma Receptors IIa and IIIb to Surface-Bound IgG
,”
Biophys. J.
,
79
, pp.
1867
1875
.
31.
Williams
,
T. E.
,
Selvaraj
,
P.
, and
Zhu
,
C.
,
2000
, “
Concurrent Binding to Multiple Ligands: Kinetic Rates of CD16b for Membrane-Bound IgG1 and IgG2
,”
Biophys. J.
,
79
, pp.
1858
1866
.
You do not currently have access to this content.