A partial ACL injury may involve different levels of fiber disruption, or fibers may sustain microscopic changes in their structure without gross disruption, resulting in a change in ligament function. The effect of partial ACL tears on the mechanical and functional stability of the knee has not been well documented, in part because of diagnostic difficulties. A computer model of the knee in the sagittal plane was used in this study to simulate tests using the KT-2000 Knee Arthrometer, which quantifies Lachman’s test for ACL injury. A variety of partial ACL anterior and posterior bundle injuries were simulated. Anterior and posterior bundle injuries were subdivided into four different simulated injury levels: mild (one-half tear of the bundle), moderate (complete tear of the bundle), severe (complete tear of the bundle and tear of one-half of the other bundle), and more severe (severe injury plus an additional elongation of the other bundle represented by 5% increases of its initial strain). Force-displacement results obtained from simulated KT-2000 knee arthrometer tests depended on the level of injury. Mild and moderate injuries produced only small change in the anterior tibial translation—at different force levels. Severe injury produced increased anterior tibial translation depending on which bundle was completely ruptured. The compliance index defined as the ratio of the displacement and the force within 68 N and 90 N anterior drawer forces, the stiffness, and the rate of change of stiffness of the anterior force-displacement were found to be better at predicting partial ACL ruptures than simple differences in anterior tibial translation. It was possible in the model results to discriminate knees with various levels of partial ACL injuries using the first and second derivatives of the force-displacement curve.
A Modeling Study of Partial ACL Injury: Simulated KT-2000 Arthrometer Tests
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division Mar. 1999; revised manuscript received Dec. 2001. Associate Editor: M. G. Pandy.
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Liu, W., Maitland , M. E., and Bell, G. D. (May 21, 2002). "A Modeling Study of Partial ACL Injury: Simulated KT-2000 Arthrometer Tests ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. June 2002; 124(3): 294–301. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1468636
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