A microscopic velocimetry technique for evaluating the flow field over cultured endothelial cells was developed. Flow around a cell model scaled up by a factor of 100 was visualized by using an optical microscope and was quantified by using particle-tracking velocimetry. Wall shear stress on the model surface was determined from a two-dimensional velocity field interpolated from measured velocity vectors. Accuracy of the velocimetry was verified by measuring the flow over a sinusoidal cell model that had a wall shear stress profile analytically determined with linear perturbation theory. Comparison of the experimental results with the analytical solution revealed that the total error of the measured wall shear stress was 6 percent.

1.
Nerem
,
R. M.
,
1993
, “
Hemodynamics and the Vascular Endothelium
,”
J. Biomech. Eng.
,
115
, pp.
510
514
.
2.
Davies
,
P. F.
,
1995
, “
Flow-Mediated Endothelial Mechanotransduction
,”
Physiol. Rev.
,
75
, pp.
519
560
.
3.
Liu
,
S. Q.
,
1999
, “
Biomechanical Basis of Vascular Tissue Engineering
,”
Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.
,
27
, pp.
75
148
.
4.
Satcher
, Jr.,
R. L.
,
Bussolari
,
S. R.
,
Gimbrone
, Jr.,
M. A.
, and
Dewey
, Jr.,
C. F.
,
1992
, “
The Distribution of Fluid Forces on Model Arterial Endothelium Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
,”
J. Biomech. Eng.
,
114
, pp.
309
316
.
5.
Barbee
,
K. A.
,
Davies
,
P. F.
, and
Lal
,
R.
,
1994
, “
Shear Stress-Induced Reorganization of the Surface Topography of Living Endothelial Cells Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy
,”
Circ. Res.
,
74
, pp.
163
171
.
6.
Barbee
,
K. A.
,
Mundel
,
T.
,
Lal
,
R.
, and
Davies
,
P. F.
,
1995
, “
Subcellular Distribution of Shear Stress at the Surface of Flow-Aligned and Nonaligned Endothelial Monolayers
,”
Am. J. Physiol.
,
268
, pp.
1765
1772
.
7.
Jacobs, P. F., 1993, Rapid Prototyping & Manufacturing: Fundamentals of SteroLithography, McGraw-Hill, New York.
8.
Merzkirch, W., 1987, Flow Visualization, Academic Press Inc., Orlando, pp. 38–66.
9.
Budwig
,
R.
,
1994
, “
Refractive Index Matching Methods for Liquid Flow Investigations
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
17
, pp.
350
355
.
10.
Adrian
,
R. J.
,
1991
, “
Particle-Imaging Techniques for Experimental Fluid Mechanics
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
,
23
, pp.
261
304
.
11.
Grant
,
I.
,
1997
, “
Particle Image Velocimetry: A Review
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci.
,
211
, pp.
55
76
.
12.
Kobayashi, T., and Saga, T., 1988, “A Real Time Velocity Measurement Algorithm for Two-Dimensional Flow Field,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, FLUCOME ’88, pp. 174–178.
You do not currently have access to this content.