The observation of intimal hyperplasia at bypass graft anastomoses has suggested a potential interaction between local hemodynamics and vascular wall response. Wall shear has been particularly implicated because of its known effects upon the endothelium of normal vessels and, thus, was examined as to its possible role in the development of intimal hyperplasia in arterial bypass graft distal anastomoses. Tapered (4–7 mm I.D.) e-PTFE synthetic grafts 6 cm long were placed as bilateral carotid artery bypasses in six adult, mongrel dogs weighing between 25 and 30 kg with distal anastomotic graft-to-artery diameter ratios (DR) of either 1.0 or 1.5. Immediately following implantation, simultaneous axial velocity measurements were made in the toe and artery floor regions in the plane of the anastomosis at radial increments of 0.35 mm, 0.70 mm, and 1.05 mm using a specially designed 20 MHz triple crystal ultrasonic wall shear rate transducer. Mean, peak, and pulse amplitude wall shear rates (WSRs), their absolute values, the spatial and temporal wall shear stress gradients (WSSG), and the oscillatory shear index (OSI) were computed from these velocity measurements. All grafts were harvested after 12 weeks implantation and measurements of the degree of intimal hyperplasia (IH) were made along the toe region and the artery floor of the host artery in 1 mm increments. While some IH occurred along the toe region (8.35±23.1 μm) and was significantly different between DR groups the greatest amount occurred along the artery floor (81.6±106.5 μm, mean±S.D.) although no significant differences were found between DR groups. Linear regressions were performed on the paired IH and mean, peak, and pulse amplitude WSR data as well as the absolute mean, peak, and pulse amplitude WSR data from all grafts. The mean and absolute mean WSRs showed a modest correlation with IH and −0.370, respectively) with further improvements seen and −0.445, respectively) when using an exponential relationship. The overall best correlation was seen against an exponential function of the OSI Although these correlation coefficients were not high, they were found to be statistically significant as evidenced by the large F-statistic obtained. Finally, it was observed that over 75 percent of the IH occurred at or below a mean WSR value of 100 s−1 while approximately 92 percent of the IH occurred at or below a mean WSR equal to one-half that of the native artery. Therefore, while not being the only factor involved, wall shear (and in particular, oscillatory wall shear) appears to provide a stimulus for the development of anastomotic intimal hyperplasia.
Intimal Hyperplasia and Wall Shear in Arterial Bypass Graft Distal Anastomoses: An In Vivo Model Study
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division June 2, 2000; revised manuscript received May 16, 2001. Associate Editor: A. P. Yoganathan.
Keynton, R. S., Evancho , M. M., Sims, R. L., Rodway, N. V., Gobin, A., and Rittgers, S. E. (May 16, 2001). "Intimal Hyperplasia and Wall Shear in Arterial Bypass Graft Distal Anastomoses: An In Vivo Model Study ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. October 2001; 123(5): 464–473. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1389461
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